سنجش عوامل بهبود پایداری اجتماعی در بازآفرینی از منظر ساکنان؛ مطالعه موردی: محله شیوا تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد

2 دانشجو

چکیده

امروزه بافت­های فرسوده شهری ناهنجاری­های بسیاری را پیشِ روی ساکنان خود قرار داده­اند؛ از جمله مهم­ترین این مشکلات و ناهنجاری­ها، ناپایداری اجتماعی آنهاست. از این رو معضلات اجتماعی بافت­های فرسوده یکی از مهم­ترین موضوعات پیشِ روی نوسازی و مداخله در این بافت­ها می­باشد. از سوی دیگر، نوسازی بافت­های فرسوده نیز همانند بسیاری دیگر از مسائل شهری امروزه تحت تأثیر مفاهیم پایداری قرار دارند. بنابراین در مداخله با رویکرد اجتماعی در بافت­های فرسوده در نظر گرفتن موضوعات پایداری اجتماعی ضروری به نظر می­رسد. به همین سبب، پژوهش حاضر سعی بر آن دارد تا با بررسی ادبیات موجود پیرامون پایداری اجتماعی، عوامل کلیدی موضوع را استخراج کرده و به تحلیل آنها در بافت فرسوده شیوا بپردازد. هدف این پژوهش توجه به مشکلات اجتماعی بافت­های فرسوده و از جمله آن بافت فرسوده شیوا و بررسی عوامل تأثیرگذار در ارتقای پایداری اجتماعی آنها می­باشد. در این پژوهش از روش تحقیق توصیفی پیمایشی در بستری از مطالعات کتابخانه­ای برای استخراج معیارها و همچنین نرم­افزار SPSS برای تحلیل داده­های آماری، بهره گرفته شده است. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی_کمی بوده و از حیث هدف، کاربردی قلمداد می­شود. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که تساوی حقوق، کیفیت زندگی، امنیت اجتماعی، تعامل اجتماعی، عدالت اجتماعی و مشارکت اجتماعی به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیر را در ارتقای پایداری اجتماعی بافت فرسوده شیوا دارا می­باشند که با در نظر گرفتن این عوامل در نوسازی بافت می­توان شاهد حفظ و تقویت نظام­های اجتماعی_فرهنگی محله بود و از ناهنجاری­های رفتاری، روانی، شغلی و هویتی پیشگیری کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Factors Affecting Social Sustainability Improvements and Their Impact on the Renovation of Deteriorated Areas from Resident’s Viewpoint (Case Study: Shiva Neighborhood in Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sina Razzaghi Asl 1
  • Farzaneh Khoshghadam 2
2 Student
چکیده [English]

Urban authorities and residents of urban deteriorated areas have faced many problems including, among the most important, unstable social condition of these areas. Social problems are one of the most important issues in renovation of and intervention in these kind of urban fabrics. According to the literature, definitions of urban regeneration have evolved over time and now are strongly influenced by the concept of sustainability. In fact, intervening in urban deteriorated areas is quite a social issue. There are different approaches for intervention in urban deteriorated areas. Regeneration and its recent approach - urban renaissance - is considered as the newest concept for intervention in recent years. On the other hand, the dominant and recent view of urban regeneration is social sustainability. Therefore, the subject of social sustainability seems essential in the intervention with the social approach in urban deteriorated areas. This study tries to review the existing literature about social sustainability and then extract and analyze the key factors of social sustainability in deteriorated areas of Shiva Neighborhood in Tehran. The aim of this study is to examine social problems of deteriorated areas of the study area and evaluate the effective factors on improving social sustainability. This research is a descriptive survey in the context of library studies which uses SPSS to analyze data. The study is also a qualitative–quantitative research with an applied goal. The results of this study indicate that the most important indicators affecting social sustainability in deteriorated areas, in Shiva Neighborhood in particular, are sense of belonging, walkable neighborhood, vitality, security, supply of affordable housing, social participation, equitable distribution of resources and services, creating job opportunities, education, activity in the place, residents’ empowerment, environmental health, sense of satisfaction, free time, and satisfaction with income. These indicators were grouped in seven categories of equity, quality of life, social security, social interaction, social justice, social participation and social cohesion. These seven categories have respectively the most impact on improving social sustainability in deteriorated areas of Shiva Neighborhood. Equity represents the economic situation of residents. Based on the conditions of deteriorated areas, it seems reasonable that this factor is the most effective one. Despite the importance of this factor, its impact was negative and reduced social sustainability. Social security and social interaction were other factors having a negative impact on social sustainability after renovation in the neighborhood. Quality of life, social justice and social participation were the factors that improved social sustainability in this neighborhood. The impact factor of social cohesion shows that the measures taken have not been considerable in the eyes of the residents. Overall, based on the average of all factors, social sustainability increased after renovation in Shiva Neighborhood, but the amount of this increase was very low and required more serious efforts. It will be very effective to consider these factors in the future planning process of renovation in this neighborhood, an issue that will prevent behavioral, mental, occupational and identity disorders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Sustainability
  • Renovation
  • Urban Deteriorated Area
  • Shiva community
  • Andalib, A. (2013). principles for renovation of urban deteriorated areas. Tehran: Azarakhsh [in Persian].
  • Assefa, G., & Frostell, B. (2007). Social Sustainability and Social Acceptance in Technology Assessment: A Case Study of Energy Technologies. Technology in Society, 29(1), 63-78.
  • Bahraini, S. M., Izadi, S., & Mofidi, M. (2014). The Approaches and Policies of Urban Renewal from" Urban Reconstruction" to "Sustainable Urban Regeneration. Motaleate Shahri, 3(9), 17-30 [in Persian].
  • Baines, J., & Morgan, B. (2004). Sustainability Appraisal: A Social Perspective’ In Sustainability Appraisal. A Review Of International Experience And Practice. (B. Dalal-Clayton , & B. Sadler, Eds.) London: First Draft of Work in Progress, International Institute for Environment and Development.
  • Barron, L., & Gauntlett, E. (2002). Stage 1 report - Model of social sustainability. Housing and sustainable communities, indicators project. Western Australia: Perth, Murdoch University.
  • Bramley, G., Dempsey, N., Power, S., & Brown, C. (2006). What is "Social Sustainability", and how do our existing urban forms perform in nurturing it? Global Places, Local Spaces, Planning Research Conference. London: The Bartlett School of Planning, UCL.
  • Chambers, R., & Conway, G. R. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods : practical concepts for the 21st century. Brighton, England: Institute of Development Studies.
  • Chan, E., & Lee, G. K. L. (2008, January). Critical factors for improving social sustainability of urban renewal projects. Social Indicators Research, 85(2), 243–256.
  • Colantonio, A. (2008). Traditional and Emerging Prospects in Social Sustainability. Measuring Social Sustainability: Best Practice from Urban Renewal in the EU. Headington: Oxford Brookes University.
  • Colantonio, A., & Dixon , T. (2011). Urban Regeneration & Social Sustainability: Best Practice from European Cities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Colantonio, A., & Dixon, T. (2009). Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University: Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD).
  • Daneshpour, S. A., Shieh, E., & Roosta, M. (2014). Compilation The Structural Model of Social Sustainability Place Factors by Factor Analysis and Path Analysis. International Journal of Urban and Rural Management, 13(35), 133-142 [in Persian].
  • Dempsey, N., Bramley, G., Power, S., & Brown, C. (2009). The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability. Sustainable Development, 19(5), 289-300.
  • Dempsey, N., Brown, C., & Bramley, G. (2012). The key to sustainable urban development in UK cities? The influence of density on social sustainability. Progress in Planning, 77(3), 89-141.
  • Department for International Development (DFID). (1999). Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets.
  • Faraji, A. (2010). Types of interventions in urban renewal and urban rehabilitation. Shoraha(54), 10-16 [in Persian].
  • Glasson, J., & Wood , G. (2009). Urban regeneration and impact assessment for social sustainability. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 27(4), 283-290.
  • Golkar, K. (2011). Creating Sustainable Place: Reflection on Urban Design Theory. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University [in Persian].
  • Habibi, S. M., & Maghsoudi, M. (2007). Urban Renovation. Tehran: University of Tehran [in Persian].
  • Hans-Boeckler-Foundation (Ed.). (2001). Pathways towards a sustainable future. Setzkasten, Düsseldorf.
  • Hitchcock, D., & Willard, M. (2011). Confused about Social Sustainability? ISSP Insight eJournal., 1-12.
  • Honarvar, N. (2001). Examine the evolution of urban restoration resolutions in Iran. Haft Shahr, 1(3), 14-31 [in Persian].
  • Hopwood, B., Mellor, M., & O'Brien, G. (2005). Sustainable Development: mapping different approaches. Sustainable Development, 13(1), 38–52.
  • Kamalikhah, E., & Rezae, M. S. (2013). Social sustainability considerations in Physical redesigning of neighborhood in deteriorated area, Case study: Western part of the neighborhood Sanglaj. Nosazi online, 4(20), 1-16 [in Persian].
  • Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. NY: Guilford.
  • Krizek, K. J., & Power, J. (1996). A planners guide to sustainable development. American Planning Association. (M. Behzadfar, & K. Habibi, Trans.) Tabriz: Mehr-e-Iman [in Persian].
  • Littig, B., & Griessler, E. (2005). Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1-2), 65–79.
  • LUDA. (2005). Compendium: Handbook 3, Sustainable urban regeneration and its assessment. LUDA project.
  • Mak, M. Y., & Peacock, C. J. (2011). Social Sustainability: A Comparison of Case Studies in UK, USA and Australia. 17th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, (pp. 1-14). Gold Coast.
  • McDonald, S., Malys, N., & Maliene, V. (2009). Urban Regeneration for Sustainable Communities: A Case Study. Technological and economic development OF ECONOMY, Baltic Journal on Sustainability, 15(1), 49–59.
  • McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: Towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute: Working Paper Series. Magill: University of South Australia.
  • Mehan, A. (2016). Urban Regeneration: A Comprehensive Strategy for Achieving Social Sustainability in Historical Public Squares. 3rd International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts (pp. 861-868). SGEM .
  • Murphy, K. (2012). The Social Pillar of Sustainable Development: A Literature Review and Framework for Policy Analysis. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 8(1), 15-29.
  • Nastaran, M., Ghasemi, V., & Hadizadeh, S. (2013). Assessment of Indices of Social Sustainability by Using ANP. Journal of Applied Sociology, 24(3), 155-173 [in Persian].
  • Omann, I., & Spangenberg, J. H. (2002). Assessing Social Sustainability; The Social Dimension of Sustainability in a Socio-Economic Scenario. 7th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics (pp. 1-20). Sousse (Tunisia): Sustainable Europe Research Institute SERI.
  • Pourahmad, A., Habibi, K., & Keshavarz, M. (2010). The Evolution of the Concept of Urban Renewal as a New Approach in Urban Deteriorated Fabric. Journal of Shahr-e Irani Islami(1), 73-92 [in Persian].
  • Rafieian, M., & Mirzakhalili, M. (2014). Evaluation of social sustainability in urban neighbourhoods of Karaj city. International Journal of Architectural Engineering & Urban Planning, 24(2), 121-129.
  • Sachs, I. (1999). Social sustainability and whole development: exploring the dimensions of sustainable development. (B. Egon, & J. Thomas, Eds.) London: Zed Books.
  • Samuelsson, B., Azar, C., Holmberg, J., Johansson, D. J., Morrison, G., Nässen, J., . . . Larsson, A. (2004). From Here to Sustainability–Is the Lisbon/Göteborg agenda delivering? Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology.
  • Shahrkalbod Consultants. (2012). Identification report of Shiva and Shakib neighborhood. Renewal facilitation office in Shiva and Shakib neighborhood [in Persian].
  • Shammai, A., & Pourahmad, A. (2011). Urban rehabilitation and renovation, a geographic perspective. Tehran: University of Tehran [in Persian].
  • Thin, N., Lockhart, C., & Yaron, G. (2002). Conceptualising Socially Sustainable Developmen. Washington, DC: Paper prepared for DFID and the World Bank, DFID, Mimeo.
  • Vallance, S., Perkinsa, H. C., & Dixonb, J. E. (2011). What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts. Geoforum Journal, 42(3), 342–348.
  • Weingaertner, C., & Moberg, Å. (2014). Exploring Social Sustainability: Learning from Perspectives on Urban Development and Companies and Products. Sustainable Development, 22(2), 122–133.
  • Williams, K., & Jenks, M. (2000). Achieving Sustainable Urban Form. (K. Williams, M. Jenks, & E. Burton, Eds.) London: E &​ FN Spon.
  • Woodcraft, S., Bacon, N., Caistor-Arendar, L., & Hackett, T. (2011). Design for Social Sustainability: A framework for creating thriving communities. London: The Young Foundation.