تبیین و ارزیابی مولفه‌های تاب‌آوری نهادی و اجتماعی در سکونتگاه‌های خودانگیخته شهری؛ مطالعه موردی: ناحیه منفصل شهری نایسر؛ سنندج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدیر مرکز آموزش و پژوهش‌های توسعه و آینده‌نگری سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی کردستان

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

امروزه اغلب سکونتگاه­های خودانگیخته شهری به دلایل مختلفی از قبیل کمبود توان مالی، بالا بودن هزینه تأمین مسکن رسمی،  قیمت بالای زمین شهری (به خصوص برای اقشار کم­درآمد)، پیشی گرفتن روند توسعه‌های شهری از برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت عقلایی شهری و عوامل متعدد دیگر، در مکان­هایی بنا شده‌اند که اغلب آنها مخاطرات طبیعی یا به دلیل تکنولوژیکی در معرض انواع تهدیدهای طبیعی و مصنوع قرار گرفته­اند. در این میان تلاش برای دستیابی به شرایطی که در صورت وقوع بحران، بازگشت آنها را به وضعیت پیش از بحران (اعاده به وضعیت سابق) فراهم سازد و یا انعطاف‌پذیری آنها را افزایش دهد، امری ضروری است. تاب‌آوری رویکرد جدیدی است که در پی پاسخ به نیازهای ناشی از تغییرات سریع و پیچیدگی­های روزافزون شهرها با چهار بعد اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زیرساختی و نهادی مطرح شده و در مواجهه با ناشناخته­ها و عدم قطعیت­ها به کار می­رود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی ابعاد نهادی و اجتماعی تاب­آوری در سکونتگاه خودانگیخته نایسر واقع در شمال شرق شهر سنندج و مقایسه آن با حد بهینه مقادیر این شاخص­هاست. برای دستیابی به این هدف ابتدا چارچوب نظری و معیارهای موضوع شامل پنج شاخص اجتماعی و سه شاخص نهادی و سپس چارچوب مفهومی موضوع استخراج می­شوند. از طرفی به منظور تعریف حد بهینه در این پژوهش و با توجه به عدم وجود سابقه نظری مناسب این رویکرد در کشورمان، حد بهینه تاب­آور بودن هر شاخص از مطالعات انجام شده در مناطقی در سطح جهان (ژاپن و کالیفرنیا) حاصل شد که در برابر بحران­های متعدد تاب­آور بوده­اند. برای رسیدن به هدف پژوهش، داده­ها با استفاده از مطالعات میدانی، سرشماری­های نفوس و مسکن سال 1390 شهر سنندج و اطلاعات حاصل از سرشماری­ ژاپن و کالیفرنیا و همچنین توزیع  348 پرسشنامه به روش نمونه­گیری تصادفی ساده برداشت شده است. سپس داده­های موجود از طریق نرم­افزار Spss پردازش شده و با حد بهینه تطبیق داده شد. علاوه بر این امر برای تهیه نقشه­ها و انطباق وضعیت­های مختلف با ناحیه از نرم­افزار GIS استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از درجات بسیار پایین تاب­آوری نهادی و اجتماعی این سکونتگاه نسبت به حد بهینه این معیارهاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Components of Institutional and Social Resilience in Urban Spontaneous Settlements (Case Study: Naisar Separated Urban District in Sanandaj)

نویسندگان [English]

  • akbar mohammadi 1
  • Kasra Ashouri 2
  • mohammad bashir robati 3
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, due to different reasons such as low financial affordability, high cost of standard housing, lack of affordable land in cities (especially for a particular population), lack of scientific criteria in finding location (for housing) or in urban development, and as urban development processes surpass rational urban planning and managemen, most cities and urban habitats are located in sites which are exposed to a variety of human-made threats because of natural hazards or technological progresses. In this regard, in the case of a crisis, efforts to achieve circumstances which provide the possibility to restore the conditions before crisis or increasing the flexibility of those cities and habitats are of high importance. Resilience is a new approach proposed as a novel perspective to deal with rapid changes and increasing needs and complications of cities. In most cases, this approach is used to face the unknowns or uncertainties. Resilience is also emphasized over vulnerability. The concept of resilience has evolved over time; in the recent decade, it has peculiarly been the center of attention in scientific and political debates. The present applied research tries to recognize and evaluate the effective factors on social and institutional resilience in Naisar detached urban district of Sanandaj. It also attempts to optimally adapt those factors by using descriptive, analytic and comparative methods. Naisar district is located at the northeast of Sanandaj. It is 309.5 hectares making it the largest spontaneous settlement of the city. At the beginning, this area was in the form of a village in Sanandaj suburbs, but, due to lack of residential land in the city (Sanandaj has many hills unsuitable for residential construction), the village turned into a satellite area for the overflowing population of the city in the 90s. In the census of villages in 1996, the population of Naisar was announced to be 938. The interesting point is the rapid increase in Naisar population over the past 15 years. The population of Naisar was 12480 in 2006. In 2011, it increased by 29.5% and reached 27377. Like many such settlements, Naisar has a very low resilience in the face of incidents. The purpose of this research is to investigate the social and institutional resilience criteria in this settlement. To this end, the indices and influential factors on social and institutional resilience in these settlements were first identified and defined operationally through library research. Then, the resilience level of the spontaneous settlement of Naisar was determined through AIR, RIF and CIR formulas. The results of the research indicated low levels of resilience in this settlement. Based on the findings, it seems that more factors are effective on the evaluation of the resilience level of the spontaneous settlement of Naisar due to its unfavorable conditions. The results also indicate that, in Naisar detached urban district, as one of the particular settlements of Sanandaj which has been recognized as an informal settlement, social resilience has a more favorable situation than institutional resilience.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Resilience
  • social and institutional resilience
  • spontaneous settlement
  • Sanandaj city
  • Naisar
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