بررسی ریخت-گونه شناسانه بافت های مسکونی جدید در راستای بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی اولیه (نمونه موردی: سپاهان شهر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

چکیده

با پیشرفت سریع فناوری و در پی آن رشد روزافزون جمعیت شهری، توسعه‌ی محلات مسکونی امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر بوده است. ساخت‌وسازهای خارج از ضابطه، تغییرات شکلی بافت‌های شهری و عدم تطابق آن با ویژگی‌های اقلیمی، افزایش تقاضای انرژی مصرفی ساختمان‌ها را به دنبال داشته است. به‌گونه‌ای که بخش عمده‌ای از انرژی که در شهرها به مصرف می‌رسد به ساختمان‌های مسکونی تعلق دارد و یکی از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر این مسئله شکل بافت شهری است. اما اغلب پژوهش‌هایی که تاکنون در این حوزه انجام‌شده است، به بررسی اثرات شکل شهری بر مصرف سوخت حمل‌ونقل پرداخته‌اند و یا مصرف انرژی ساختمان‌ها را در مقیاس خرد ارزیابی نموده‌اند. ازآنجایی‌که عملکرد حرارتی ساختمان‌ها در مقیاس‌های فراتر از مقیاس ساختمانی متفاوت می‌باشد، این مسئله اهمیت تحلیل عملکرد حرارتی ساختمان‌ها را در مقیاس‌هایی بالاتر نظیر واحد همسایگی برای محققین روشن می‌سازد. لذا این پژوهش در پی آن است که با به کارگیری رویکرد ریخت-گونه شناسانه و سنجش مصرف انرژی اولیه گرمایشی، سرمایشی و روشنایی ریخت‌گونه‌های مختلف، به بررسی روابط بین شاخص‌های ریخت شناختی و مصرف انرژی اولیه بپردازد و بر اساس معیار انرژی اولیه، الگوهای کارآمد و ناکارآمد را شناسایی نماید.  با توجه به ماهیت کاربردی این تحقیق، روش مورد استفاده در آن توصیفی-تحلیلی است و برای یافته اندوزی از روشهای اسنادی و میدانی( مشاهده، پرسشنامه)بهره جسته است. پژوهش حاضر در سه‌گام متفاوت تعریف‌شده، به‌طوری‌که نخست با مطالعات اسنادی به شرح مباحث کلیدی پرداخته، سپس بر اساس رویکرد ریخت-گونه شناسی و با روش میدانی، بافت مسکونی سپاهان شهر در مقیاس واحد همسایگی ریخت-گونه بندی شده است. در پایان نیز با مدلسازی مصرف انرژی اولیه سرمایشی، گرمایشی و روشنایی ریخت‌گونه‌های مختلف از طریق نرم‌افزار دیزاین بیلدر، نتایج بر اساس نگرش مقایسه‌ای، آزمون همبستگی و آنالیز واریانس تحلیل گردیده‌اند. یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که، بین مصرف انرژی اولیه و شاخص‌های طرح چیدمان، مکان قرارگیری توده، فرم ساختمان، ارتفاع ساختمان، سطح معابر و فضاهای باز رابطه همبستگی قوی و بین مصرف انرژی اولیه و شاخص تناسبات بلوک رابطه همبستگی متوسط وجود دارد. همچنین بر اساس نتایج حاصل از تحلیل واریانس، الگوهای متداول ردیفی و الگوهای مربع شکل، به ترتیب کارآمدترین و ناکارآمدترین الگوی بافت مسکونی جدید به شمار می‌آیند. سایر الگوها نظیر گونه‌های L,I,T,H شکل ازلحاظ مصرف انرژی اولیه در سطح میانی قرار می‌گیرند و در این میان، الگوهای H شکل بهترین گزینه برای ساختمان متراکم چهار طبقه می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Typo-morphological evaluation of new residential urban texture in order to optimize primary energy consumption case study: Sepahanshahr

نویسنده [English]

  • - - 2

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Primary Energy
  • New Residential texture
  • neighborhood
  • Typo-Morphology
  • Simulation

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·         Andreou, E. (2014). The effect of urban layout, street geometry and orientation onshading conditions in urban canyons in the Mediterranean. Renewable Energy,Vol:63, 587-596.

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·         Compagnon, R. (2004). Solar and Daylight Availability in the Urban Fabric. Energy and Buildings,Vol.36, No. 4:321-328. 

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·         Ko, Y.(2013). Urban form and residential energy use: A review of design principles and research findings. Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 28, NO.4: 327-351.

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·         Moudon, A. (1994).Getting to Know the Built Landscape: Typo-morphology.in Frank K. and Schneekloth L. (eds.), Ordering Space, Types in Architecture and Design, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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·         Permana , A.S, & Perera, R., & Kumar, S. (2008). Understanding energy consumption pattern of households in different urban development forms: A comparative study in Bandung City, Indonesia. Energy Policy,Vol. 36,No.11:287–4297.

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·         Rode, P., Keim, C., Robazza, G., Viejo, P., & Schofield, J. (2014). Cities and energy:Urban morphology and residential heat-energy demand. Environment andPlanning B: Planning and Design, Vol.41, No. 1: 138-162.

·         Salat, S. (2009). Energy loads, CO2 emissions and building stocks: morphologies, typologies, energy systems and behavior. Building Research & Information, Vol.37, No. 5:589-609.

·         Strømann-Andersen, J., Sattrup, P.a. (2011). The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains. Energy and Buildings, Vol.43, No.8:2011-2020.

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·         Tavassoli, M.(2012). Urban Structue  and Architecture in the Hot Arid Zone on Iran, 2th edition: Tehran: Payam Peivand No Press. [In Persian]

·         Trache, H. (2001). Promoting urban design in development palns: Typo-morphological approachs in Montreuil. Urban Design International, Vol.6, No.3: 157-172.

·         United Nations.( 2007). City Planning Will Determine Pace of Global Warming, Retrieved November 8,2011,from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/gaef3190.doc.htm.

·         Vance, c. & Hedel, R. (2007). The impact of urban form on automobile travel: disentangling causation from correlation. Transportation,Vol. 34,No.5:575–588.

·         Vartholomaios, A. (2017). A parametric sensitivity analysis of the influence of urban form ondomestic energy consumption for heating and cooling in aMediterranean city, Sustainable Cities and Society,Vol. 28:135-145.

·         Yao, R. and Steemers, K. (2005). A method of formulating energy load profile for domestic buildings in the UK. Energy and Buildings, Vol.37, No.6: 663–671.

·         Zakerhaghighi,K., Majedi,H. & Habib,F.(2010). Identifying effective indicators for typology of urban fabrics.Hoviate Shahr.Vol.4, No. 7: 105-112. [In Persian]

·         Adolphe, Luc. (2001). Modelling the link between built environment and urban climate: towards simplified indicators of the city environment, Seventh International IBPSA Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 679-684.

·         Andreou, E. (2014). The effect of urban layout, street geometry and orientation onshading conditions in urban canyons in the Mediterranean. Renewable Energy,Vol:63, 587-596.

·         Bahreini, H.(2011). Urban Design Process, 8th edition, Tehran: University of Tehran press.[In Persian]

·         Cheng, V., Steemers, K., Montavon, M. & Compagnon, R. (2006). Urban Form, Density and Solar Potential. PLEA, The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Geneva, Switzerland, 701-706.

·         Compagnon, R. (2004). Solar and Daylight Availability in the Urban Fabric. Energy and Buildings,Vol.36, No. 4:321-328. 

·         Conzen,M.R.G.(1960(.Alnwick,Northumberland:a study in town ـplan analysis ,Institute of British Geographers Puplication 27, London, George,Vol.36,No. 4: 321–28.

·         Dhakal , S. , K. Hanakiand A. Hiramatsu , 2003 : Estimation of heat discharges by residential buildings in Tokyo. Energy Conversion and Management ,Vol.44, No.9:1487–1499.

·         Energy balance sheet.(2003).Iran: Ministry of Energy. [In Persian]

·         Ewing, R and  Rong,F. (2008).The Impact of Urban form on US Residential Energy Use,Housing Policy Debate, Vol.19,No.1: 1–30.

·         Franchi, R.John.(2004).Technology and directions for the Future,Oxford: Elsevier.

·         Gropius, W. (1965). The New Architecture and the Bauhaus,Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A: MIT Press.

·         Grubler, A., Bai, X., Buettner, T., Dhakal, S., Fisk, D. J., Ichinose, T., Keirstead, J. E., Sammer, G., Satterthwaite, D., Schulz,N. B., Shah, N., Steinberger, J. & H. Weisz.(2012). Urban Energy Systems. In Global Energy Assessment-Toward a Sustainable Future .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1307-1400.

·         Gupta, V.K. (1984). Solar radiation and urban design for hot climates. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design,Vol:11,No 4: 435-454.

·         Huovila, P., Ala-Juusela, M., Melchert, L., & Pouffary, S. (2007). Buildings and climate change. Status, Challenges and Opportunities. Paris: United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved on November 8,2011,fromhttp://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/dtix0916xpa-buildingsclimate.pdf

·         International Energy Agency. (2013). world energy outlook Retrieved on 12 November 2013 from https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO2013.pdf.

·         Ko, Y.(2013). Urban form and residential energy use: A review of design principles and research findings. Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 28, NO.4: 327-351.

·         Kristjansdottir,S.(2001).The integration of architectural and geographical concepts in urban morphology:preliminary thoughts,proceedings of the international Seminar on Urban Form, September 5-9,2001, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, bls, 112-113.

·         Kropf, K. (1998). Typological Zoning. In Typological Process and Design Theory. Attilio Petruccioli (ed). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture.

·         Martin, L. (1967). Architects’ approach to architecture. RIBA Journal. Vol:74.No.5: 191–200.

·         Moudon, A. (1994).Getting to Know the Built Landscape: Typo-morphology.in Frank K. and Schneekloth L. (eds.), Ordering Space, Types in Architecture and Design, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

·         Nasrollahi , F.(2011).Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in Designing New Generation Office Building pilot project, The 9th International Energy Conference in Tehran, Iran. [In Persian]

·         Nasrollahi, F.(2013). Green office buildings: low energy demand through architectural energy Efficiency, Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin.

·         Nasrollahi,F.(2009).Climate an Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates,Berlin: Univerlagtuberli press.

·         Permana , A.S, & Perera, R., & Kumar, S. (2008). Understanding energy consumption pattern of households in different urban development forms: A comparative study in Bandung City, Indonesia. Energy Policy,Vol. 36,No.11:287–4297.

·         Pont, M. B. & Haupt,p. (2005). The Spacemate: Density and the Typomorphology of the Urban Fabric. Nordisk Arkitektur Forskning,Vol.4:55-68.

·         Radberg J., (1996).Towards a Theory of Sustainability and Urban Quality: A New Method for Typological Urban Classification, in Gray M., (ed.), Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values and Design Practice, Book of Proceedings for the 14th Conference of the International Association for People- Environment Studies, Stockholm,384-392.

·         Rapoport, A. (1990).Vernacular Architecture, in Turan M., (eds.); Current Challenges in the Environmental Social Sciences. England: Avebury, Aldershot.

·         Ratti, C, Baker,N & Steemers,K. (2005).Energy Consumption and Urban Texture. Energy and Buildings, Vol.37, No.7:62–76.

·         Rode, P., Keim, C., Robazza, G., Viejo, P., & Schofield, J. (2014). Cities and energy:Urban morphology and residential heat-energy demand. Environment andPlanning B: Planning and Design, Vol.41, No. 1: 138-162.

·         Salat, S. (2009). Energy loads, CO2 emissions and building stocks: morphologies, typologies, energy systems and behavior. Building Research & Information, Vol.37, No. 5:589-609.

·         Strømann-Andersen, J., Sattrup, P.a. (2011). The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains. Energy and Buildings, Vol.43, No.8:2011-2020.

·         Tahbaz, M.(2013). Climatic Knowledge Climatic Design, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University. [In Persian]

·         Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., van den Dobbelsteen & A., de Dear, R. (2013). Energy use impact of and thermal comfort in different urban block types in the Netherlands. Energy and Buildings, Vol.67: 166-175.

·         Tavassoli, M.(2012). Urban Structue  and Architecture in the Hot Arid Zone on Iran, 2th edition: Tehran: Payam Peivand No Press. [In Persian]

·         Trache, H. (2001). Promoting urban design in development palns: Typo-morphological approachs in Montreuil. Urban Design International, Vol.6, No.3: 157-172.

·         United Nations.( 2007). City Planning Will Determine Pace of Global Warming, Retrieved November 8,2011,from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/gaef3190.doc.htm.

·         Vance, c. & Hedel, R. (2007). The impact of urban form on automobile travel: disentangling causation from correlation. Transportation,Vol. 34,No.5:575–588.

·         Vartholomaios, A. (2017). A parametric sensitivity analysis of the influence of urban form ondomestic energy consumption for heating and cooling in aMediterranean city, Sustainable Cities and Society,Vol. 28:135-145.

·         Yao, R. and Steemers, K. (2005). A method of formulating energy load profile for domestic buildings in the UK. Energy and Buildings, Vol.37, No.6: 663–671.

·         Zakerhaghighi,K., Majedi,H. & Habib,F.(2010). Identifying effective indicators for typology of urban fabrics.Hoviate Shahr.Vol.4, No. 7: 105-112. [In Persian]