عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Abstract Immigration, differences, permanent displacement and rapid population growth in Tehran are some barriers of social interactions in its neighborhoods. While the social interactions is one of the main parameters in formation social capital of the city, the role of citizens social interactions are neglected in urban regenerations as an interventional approaches in urban restoration methods. The urban regeneration with regards to its essence and strategies could be the only way for urban planners in contemporary Tehran. In this issue, landscape regeneration of Tehran public squares could be known as a key factor in increasing citizens social interactions. In this research, a qualitative method with inductive approach has been applied. Besides, 10 squares of the Tehran have been analyzed as case studies. Four factors defied for choosing these ten squares which categorized as a) having historical backgrounds, b) Participation in social and cultural transformations, c) having sufficient dimensions and proportions, d) the presence of the square in the citizens mind. According to these four factors the case studies have been chosen which named Azadi, Engelab, HassanAbad, Toupkhaneh, Vali-e-Asre, Ferdowsi, Vanak, Imam Hussein, RahAhan and Ghazvin. As, social interactions have time-place factors, environmental factors that effect on it has been studied by analyzing objective elements (physical and natural) and subjective elements (memories and human relations) of landscape of the case studies. According to the results or this survey the three square that received the most points, selected for further study with SWOT matrix. Each square have been visited by the authors and by field survey the points and matrix have been extracted. Aerial photos help the authors to have a similar approach in analyzing the landscape factors, too. Results of this part of the research, shows that most of the central green spaces of the squares used only for its greenery and no activity or social interactions could be seen in these areas. Besides, absence or lack of urban furniture especially awning or any kinds of shelters, are one of the most weakness parts of the case studies. Rapid urban traffic flow with absence of safe connection pedestrians’ ways to the central part of the squares are the next noticeable factor which have a great roll in decreasing the social activity. In conclusion, some strategies of landscape correction of the squares have been established: organizing natural elements and urban furniture, organizing pedestrian and vehicle flows, increasing selective functions and regenerating squares memories of the past and the present or future. Process of landscape regeneration of urban squares has been recognized as a diagram consists of analyzing natural, artificial and human factors. The natural factor consists of vegetations pattern, water quality, vista elements. The artificial factors, included, buildings and functions. While the humanity factors are based on citizens’ behavior pattern and memories in social and individual scale. By, discovering each factor patterns, strategies of regeneration based on increasing social interactions of citizens could be defined in combination. Each square has its own regeneration strategy based on its social, historical, natural and environmental condition.