بررسی نقش دولت در پیدایش و توسعه کالبدی-_ فضایی بندر بوشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه خلیج فارس

چکیده

مقاله حاضر به بررسی پیدایش و روند تحولات کالبدی_ فضایی شهر بوشهر در دوران مختلف تاریخی و کاربردپذیری نظریه دولت و شهرنشینی به عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین نظریات جدید در ادبیات شهر و شهرنشینی با آن تحولات می‌پردازد. بر‌اساس این نظریه، دولت با تجاری ‌‌کردن پول و سرمایه در شهرها، از طریق نظام بانکی گسترده‌ای که در اختیار دارد، به توسعه شهر و شهرنشینی کمک کرده است. این نفوذ گسترده و بی‌بدیل دولت، بیش از همه از شیوه دستیابی به منابع درآمدی آن( یعنی صدور نفت خام) سرچشمه می‌گیرد که مازاد ملی حاصل از آن سهم مهمی در انباشت سرمایه و بازتولید گسترش‌یابنده در فرایند اقتصادی کشور دارد. در این بین مسلماً شهرهایی در کشور وجود دارند که تاکنون از این زاویه مورد مطالعه قرار نگرفته‌اند؛ شهر بوشهر از آن‌ جمله است. این شهر که پیدایش آن به عنوان یک شهر نوبنیاد به زمان نادرشاه افشار و به دستور وی بر می‌گردد، بنابه شرایط جغرافیایی خاص منطقه از پسکرانه روستایی و کشاورزی تأثیرگذار بر امر رشد و توسعه شهری برخوردار نبوده و مهم‌ترین عامل تاثیرگذار در رشد و تحولات این شهر،   موقعیت مرزی (ساحلی)  و رونق بخش تجارت آن می‌باشد. در مجموع، یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که مهم‌ترین عامل تأثیرگذار در پیدایش و توسعه کالبدی _ فضایی شهر بوشهر، اقدامات و تصمیمات دولت‌های حاکم بوده است؛ در نتیجه نظریه دولت و شهرنشینی با وضعیت شهر بوشهر انطباق می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the role of state in the emergence and physical-spatial development of Boushehr

نویسنده [English]

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چکیده [English]

Studying the role of state in the emergence and physical-spatial development of Boushehr There are two dominant theories about mechanisms of urban development. Theory of Rent capitalism was initiated in 1960 by Hans Bobek and the other one is state and urbanism theory which was introduced by the Mohammad Taghi Rahnamaiee. Bobek believed that city life in Iran is dependent on the capital accumulation which gains from commercialization of agricultural surplus production (Rahnamaiee, 1388,p.143.). but According to state and urbanism theory, state helps developing the city and urbanity through its widespread banking system. The massive and unprecedented intrusion of state mostly comes from the common way to achieve its revenue sources, namely crude oil whose national surplus has an important share in accumulation and reproduction of capital in economic process. In the course of these studies, some cities in the country have not been studied so far, including Bushehr. The city's emergence as a nascent city dates back to the time of Nadir Shah and his command. Under certain geographical conditions, this rural and agricultural of urban area did not have an impact on urban growth and development. The most important factor in the development of the city can be its coastal location and thriving business sector. Findings show that foundation of Boushehr originally resulted from governmental decisions and Nader Shah Afshar founded it due to its marine position as the base for marine operation and domination over Persian Gulf. At the time of Karim Khan Zand, this city received a lot of attention. Karim Khan was interested in foreign commercial development and Boushehr changed into the main place of commercial activities in Persian Gulf. At the time of Ghajarie, Boushehr enjoys economic revivification and a lot of civil developments takes place in this city. This city changed into a big commercial center and main businessmen worked there. At the end of Ghajarie, Boushehr was the first commercial port of the country. One of the main effects of Constitution Movement in this city was foundation of municipality which considered general constructions. However its effect was not significant. Policies of the first Pahlavi caused the other ports overtake this city. Consequently, this city lost its role as the main port of the country. At the time of second Pahlavi, investment on urbanization received a lot of attention and this city enjoyed economic and financial improvements which increased immigration, instead. At this time, government inherited most of the urban lands and became one of the main landlords of the time. By beginning of Islamic Revolution, the role of government became more serious and urban areas were transferred by the government. Most part of the empty areas was changed into infrastructures. Consequently, city faced sprawl development. Another main policy of the government has been development of Alishahr new city for overpopulation of Boushehr. Generally it can be said that Boushehr has been under the influence of government since emergence and development. So it is among the cities which can be studied based on state and urbanism theory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: state
  • Urbanism
  • Rent capitalism
  • Boushehr city