نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده فنی و مهندسی دانشگاه یاسوج

2 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشگاه پیام نور، عسلویه،

3 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشگاه آزاد یاسوج، یاسوج،

چکیده

دلبستگی به مکان، رابطه عاطفی مثبت میان فرد و مکان است که در شرایط مختلف نسبت به مکان­های مختلف شکل می­گیرد. افراد ممکن است نسبت به خانه­، محله و یا شهری که در آن ساکن هستند، سطوح مختلفی از دلبستگی را داشته باشند. عواملی چون ویژگی­های ساختاری محیط، جو اجتماعی حاکم بر آن و احساسات و خاطرات یک فرد در آن محیط، از جمله عواملی هستند که بر شدت و یا ضعف این احساس تأثیرگذار می­باشند. در همین ارتباط، پژوهش حاضر میزان دلبستگی افراد نسبت به سه مقیاس خانه، محله و شهر به عنوان سه مقیاس مکانی تعریف کننده محل زندگی فرد، دلایل افزایش و یا کاهش دلبستگی به هر کدام از مقیاس­های یاد شده و تأثیر دو متغیر سن و جنسیت افراد در این خصوص را مورد بررسی قرار می­دهد. به منظور تدقیق در یافته­ها، ساکنان دو شهر تهران و ساری با مقیاس­های کالبدی و اجتماعی متفاوت به عنوان نمونه موردی انتخاب گردید که حجم نمونه در شهر تهران شامل 427 نفر و در شهر ساری شامل 306 نفر ارزیابی شد. در چارچوب نظری تدوین شده، عوامل تأثیرگذار بر دلبستگی به سه دسته عوامل کالبدی­، اجتماعی و احساسی تقسیم شدند. بر همین اساس سه پرسشنامه مجزا به منظور سنجش میزان دلبستگی افراد نسبت به سه مقیاس یاد شده تنظیم و در هر پرسشنامه، عوامل کالبدی، اجتماعی و احساسی که در شکل­گیری دلبستگی به مقیاس­های مورد نظر تأثیرگذارند، مورد سئوال قرار گرفت. داده­های حاصل از پیمایش با استفاده از آزمون­های تحلیل واریانس بین آزمودنی، آزمون اندازه­­های تکراری و تحلیل واریانس مختلط با کمک نرم­افزار spss مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از آن بود که شدت دلبستگی افراد نسبت به هر کدام از سه مقیاس مورد نظر برای ساکنان هر دو شهر تهران و ساری، متفاوت از یکدیگر است. در این ارتباط دلبستگی افراد به خانه­شان در بالاترین سطح و دلبستگی آنها به محله در پایین­ترین سطح قرار دارد. همچنین عامل جنسیت در میزان دلبستگی به مقیاس­های یاد شده تأثیرگذار نیست؛ این در حالی است که سن افراد عاملی تأثیرگذار در دلبستگی آنها به مکان­های مورد نظر به شمار می­رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the effect of place scale on the extent of place attachment in three spatial layers of home, neighborhood and city based on age and sex variables (Case study: Tehran and Sary cities)

چکیده [English]

Place attachment is a type of emotional connection developed between an individual and a specific location which could happen in different times and places.  People could feel different levels of attachment to their homes, neighborhoods or cities. This feeling could have different levels of intensity based on environmental features, social atmosphere and the memories made by individuals in that specific place. Several studies have been conducted on the subject of place attachment. Researches done by Daneshpour et al. (2009), Sarmast & Motavaseli (2010), Amir Kafi & Fathi (2011), Sajadzadeh (2014), Heidari et al. (2014), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001), Brown et al. (2003), Shamai & Liatov (2005), Gifford et al. (2009), and Lewicka (2010) are among studies that have addressed the issue from different approaches. However, these studies have not addressed place attachment in terms of the three factors of home, neighborhood, and city as well as age and sex variables. Also, they have not compared two different cities with different physical and social features. The present study will focus on the three factors of home, neighborhood and the city and delve into the reasons for the increase and decrease in the intensity of place attachment. It will also take sex and age variables into account. To compare the resulted data, residents of the two cities of Tehran and Sari were chosen. Conducting a study on the two cities of Tehran, a metropolis, and Sari, a small city with stronger social ties, can improve generalizability. The number of participants as subjects of the study in Tehran and Sari is assessed to be 427 and 306, respectively. Within the prescribed framework, factors that affect place attachment are divided into the three physical, social and emotional categories. Accordingly, three separate questionnaires were provided to assess the intensity of place attachment regarding the aforementioned categories. In each questionnaire, there were questions about physical, social and emotional factors, which are the main factors in determining the reasons behind place attachment. The resulted data from within subjects ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA and split-plot ANOVA were analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that the intensity of attachment in residents of Tehran and Sari regarding the three categories was different. Accordingly, the subjects’ attachment to their homes held the highest rank, attachment to cities was at the second place and attachment to neighborhood was at the lowest level. Also the factor of sex had no impact on the intensity of attachment regarding the aforementioned categories. However, the results of descriptive statistics showed that the intensity level related to attachment to home for both men and women held the highest level, attachment to city was at the second place and attachment to neighborhood was at the lowest level. Although not having a meaningful impact on the results of the study, in the case of female residents of Sari, attachment to city held a lower place than attachment to neighborhood.
However, the age of subjects played an important role in their place attachment. For instance, Tehran residents of all age groups said that they had a stronger attachment to their homes, their city and neighborhoods (in the same order), but in the case of Sari, teenagers showed stronger attachment to their city while older people showed roughly the same level of attachment to all the three categories.
The results showed that social attachment to home held the highest priority and physical attachment held the second place followed by emotional attachment to home. With regard to the neighborhood and city categories, for all age groups, emotional attachment to the city held the highest rank, followed by attachment to the physical dimensions and social attachment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • attachment
  • Place
  • Framework
  • emotional
  • Social

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