نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

شهر اردبیل در دو دهه اخیر ( به ویژه شکل­گیری استان اردبیل) رشد قابل توجهی را تجربه کرده است. هرچند که تبدیل شدن شهر اردبیل به مرکز استان (بنا بر آمار و ارقام موجود) در گسترش کمیت مسکن شهری نقش بسزایی داشته، اما وضعیت ویژگی­های کیفی مسکن این شهر از جمله شاخص­های بهداشتی_رفاهی چندان مشخص نیست و نمی­توان در ارتباط با وضعیت سلامتی مسکن آن بدون انجام بررسی­های علمی اظهارنظر کرد. از این رو در این پژوهش با درک این مهم، وضعیت مسکن شهر اردبیل از نظر شاخص­های مسکن سالم شهری بررسی شده است. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی_تحلیلی و جمع­آوری اطلاعات به صورت اسنادی و پیمایشی، سطح برخورداری مناطق شهری شهر اردبیل از لحاظ برخورداری از شاخص­های مسکن سالم را بررسی کرده است. برای آزمون فرضیه­های تحقیق نیز از آمار توصیفی، آزمون t، آزمون آماری F و آزمون دانکن و ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می­دهد که شهر اردبیل از لحاظ برخورداری از شاخص­های مسکن سالم در وضعیت نسبتاً مطلوبی قرار دارد اما بین مناطق مختلف شهر اردبیل از لحاظ این شاخص­ها اختلاف بارزی وجود دارد. همچنین یافته­های تحقیق دلالت بر این دارد که بین ویژگی­های اجتماعی_اقتصادی ساکنان و سالم بودن مسکن همبستگی مستقیم و مثبت و بین قدمت واحد مسکونی و سالم بودن مسکن رابطه معکوس و منفی وجود دارد. از موارد کاربردی این پژوهش می­توان به معرفی و شناسایی شاخص­های مسکن سالم برای استفاده در پژوهش­های بعدی و برجسته کردن مشکلات موجود از لحاظ شاخص­های مسکن سالم در محدوده مورد مطالعه و ارائه پیشنهادهایی برای رفع این مشکلات اشاره کرد؛ به طوری که مسئولان مدیریت شهری اردبیل با استفاده از نتایج این تحقیق می­توانند اقدام­های هدف­دار و مؤثری به منظور بهبود وضعیت مسکن سالم شهری اردبیل انجام دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Healthy House in the Cities (Case Study of Ardabil City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • h k
  • m j

چکیده [English]

Statement of the problem
In the present age, health describes a comprehensive concept of quality of life. One of the important health issues is healthy housing. As an area where people spend a significant part of their lives, housing plays an important role in providing people with peace and well-being. Therefore, healthier homes can prevent many physical and mental illnesses and affect the health of the individual and the community. On the contrary, unhealthy housing affects multiple dimensions of health and causes many problems for the individual on the micro and macro levels. Today, due to the sharp decline in the quality of housing and residential areas and the increase of environmental pollution, including air and noise pollution, inappropriate management of waste and the harmful effects of chemicals, etc. in cities, it is necessary to pay more attention to healthy housing and the provision of safe housing for citizens; this is especially important in the developing countries. Therefore, research on healthy housing can make the ground for residents to live in healthy housing and prevent contaminated diseases and accidents due to incomplete and non-standardized residential units. In this regard, it is important to study the cities the wide variety of their dwelling places. This research uses descriptive-analytical method in the form of documents and field studies to collect information. It investigates the level of utilization of urban areas of Ardabil in terms of having healthy housing indices. Accordingly, the statistical population of this study was all residential units in urban areas of Ardabil. Using Morgan table, 420 residential units were selected as the sample population. The research instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, F test, Duncan test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to test the research hypotheses.
Findings
The findings show that about 81.2%, 83.6%, 74.8%, 79%, 80.2%, and 65.2% of the residential units of Ardabil are suitable in terms of comfort, convenience, safety, health, sustainability, and vitality indices, respectively. Finally, in terms of the total index of healthy housing, about 83.3% of residential units of the city are in a favorable condition and about 16.7% are not.
Results
The results indicate that Ardabil has a relatively favorable status in terms of having healthy housing indices, but there is a significant difference between its urban areas. The difference is such that District 3 is the best district in terms of indicators of healthy housing and District 4 has the most unfavorable condition in terms of these indices. Districts 1 and 2 are respectively in the second and third places. The results also show that there is a direct correlation between the desirability of socioeconomic characteristics of residents of urban areas and having healthy housing indices and that there is a reverse relationship between building age and healthy housing indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Healthy housing
  • Healthy Housing Indices
  • Duncan test
  • Ardabil

Altgeld, T. (2004). Health promotion settings in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods'.

Arjmandnia, A. (1991). population and housing. Journal of Environmental Studies, 16(16), 25-38.

Barton, h., & Tsourou, C. (2011). Healthy Urban Planning (M. Attarian, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran Urban Research & Planning Center

Basolo, V., & Strong, D. (2002). Understanding the neighborhood: From residents’ perceptions and needs to action. Housing Policy Debate, 13(1), 83-105.

Bazi, K., Javaheri, A., & Abdolahipoor haghighi, A. (2011). Spatial differences of healthy housing indicators in Zabol neighborhoods. Geography and Environmental Planning, 22(3), 185-202.

Boleyn, T., & Honari, M. (2005). Health Ecology: Health, culture and human-environment interaction: Routledge.

Bonnefoy, X. (2007). Inadequate housing and health: an overview. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 30(3-4), 411-429.

de Wet, T., Plagerson, S., Harpham, T., & Mathee, A. (2011). Poor housing, good health: a comparison of formal and informal housing in Johannesburg, South Africa. International journal of public health, 56(6), 625-633.

Ehlers, V. M., & Steel, E. W. (1950). Municipal and Rural Sanitation. Municipal and Rural Sanitation.(Edn 4).

Ellaway, A., Macintyre, S., & Kearns, A. (2001). Perceptions of place and health in socially contrasting neighbourhoods. Urban Studies, 38(12), 2299-2316.

Evans, G. W. (2003). The built environment and mental health. Journal of urban health, 80(4), 536-555.

Ghaffari, A., & Banayi, M. (2011). The Call for Children’s Participation in Rural Empowerment and its Fundamentals. Journal of Housing and Rural Environtment, 30(133), 29-38.

Gharakhlou, M., & Kalantari Khalilabad, H. (2007). Housing conditions in the historical texture of Yazd, conference of urban planning and management. Paper presented at the conference of urban planning and management, Mashhad-Iran.

Gilloran, J. L. (1968). Social problems associated with “high living.”. Med Officer, 120, 117-118.

Golkar, k. (2005). Adaptation of SWOT for application in urban design. Sofeh(15), 44-61.

Hasselaar, E. (2006). Health performance of housing: indicators and tools (Vol. 10): IOS Press.

Hayward, E., Ibe, C., Young, J. H., Potti, K., Jones, P., Pollack, C. E., & Gudzune, K. A. (2015). Linking social and built environmental factors to the health of public housing residents: a focus group study. BMC public health, 15(1), 351.

Howard, M. (1993). The effects on human health of pest infestation in houses. Unhealthy housing: research, remedies and reforms. Burridge R and Ormandy D, eds. London, E. & FN Spon, 24-63.

Itard, L. (2005). : OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5030, 2600 GA Delft, e-mail: l. itard@ otb. tudelft. nl 2: Deerns Consultants bv, PO Box 1280, 2280 CE Rijswijk, e-mail: h. boender@ deerns. nl.

Jackson, L., van Noordwijk, M., Bengtsson, J., Foster, W., Lipper, L., Pulleman, M., . . . Vodouhe, R. (2010). Biodiversity and agricultural sustainagility: from assessment to adaptive management. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 2(1-2), 80-87.

Jackson, R. J. (2003). The impact of the built environment on health: an emerging field: American Public Health Association.

Jamrozik, K. (2005). Estimate of deaths attributable to passive smoking among UK adults: database analysis. Bmj, 330(7495), 812.

Javad, M. (2015). reviews the quality of life based on healthy housing index (Case Study: Yazd University Town neighborhood). (Master thesis), Yazd University Yazd.  

Kang, N. N., Kim, J. T., & Lee, T. K. (2014). A Study on the Healthy Housing Quality of Multi-family Attached House According to Dwelling Unit Age. Energy Procedia, 62, 595-602.

Kearns, A., Hiscock, R., Ellaway, A., & Macintyre, S. (2000). 'Beyond Four Walls'. The Psycho-social Benefits of Home: Evidence from West Central Scotland. Housing Studies, 15(3), 387-410.

Krieger, J., & Higgins, D. L. (2002). Housing and health: time again for public health action. American journal of public health, 92(5), 758-768.

Lalonde, M. (1974). A new perspective on the health care of Canadians: A working document. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.

Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. D. (2003). Stressful neighborhoods and depression: a prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder. Journal of health and social behavior, 34-44.

Lynch, K. (1997). Good City Form (S. H. Bahraini, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University

Marsh, A., Gordon, D., Heslop, P., & Pantazis, C. (2000). Housing deprivation and health: a longitudinal analysis. Housing Studies, 15(3), 411-428.

Matsuda, S., & Fujino, Y. (2008). Healthy housing as an infrastructure of health support system. Asian Pacific Journal of Disease Management, 2(2), 55-61.

Mohammadzadeh, P., Mansouri, M., & koohi leilan, B. (2011). Analysis and Estimation of Housing Prices in Tabriz. Economic Modeling, 6(18), 21-38.

Mood, E. W. (1986). APHA-CDC recommended minimum housing standards: American Public Health Association Washington, DC.

Ormandy, D. (2014). Housing and child health. Paediatrics and child health, 24(3), 115-117.

porahmad, a., Garousi, A., & Noori, A. (2015). Evaluating the housing indicators in NazarAbad County (towards a healthy city approach). Physical Sacial Planning, 2(4), 21-33.

Pour Mohammadi, M. (2000). housing planning. Tehran: SAMT.

Ranson, R. (1991). Healthy housing–a practical guide. Published by E & FN Spon on behalf of the WHO Regional Office for Europe: Chapman & Hall, London.

Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness (Pion, London) Google Scholar.

Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., Black, J. B., & Chen, D. (2003). Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. American journal of public health, 93(9), 1552-1558.

Sanco, D. G. (2004). Home and Leisure Accidents in the EU: International Working Party on Injuries and Accidents, European Commission, DG Sanco.

Sharzehi, G. (2008). Identify and analyze the stability of the income municipalities. Urban Management(20), 23-37.

Shaw, M. (2004). Housing and public health. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 25, 397-418.

Shokrgozar, A. (2006). urban housing development in Iran. Radht-Iran: Haghshenas press.

Short, J. R. (2014). Urban theory: A critical assessment: Palgrave Macmillan.

Srinivasan, S., O’fallon, L. R., & Dearry, A. (2003). Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. American journal of public health, 93(9), 1446-1450.

Stafford, M., & Marmot, M. (2003). Neighbourhood deprivation and health: does it affect us all equally? International journal of epidemiology, 32(3), 357-366.

Steinfeld, E., & Danford, G. S. (1999). Theory as a basis for research on enabling environments Enabling Environments (pp. 11-33): Springer.

WHO. (2004). Mould and moisture, Health and environment briefing pamphlet series 42. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Zuluaga, M. C., Guallar-Castillón, P., Conthe, P., Rodríguez-Pascual, C., Graciani, A., León-Muñoz, L. M., . . . Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2011). Housing conditions and mortality in older patients hospitalized for heart failure. American heart journal, 161(5), 950-955.