ارزیابی آسیب‏ پذیری بافت‏های مسکونی در برابر زلزله و راهکارهای کاهش آسیب‌پذیری (مطالعه موردی: منطقه شش شهرداری تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

موقعیت جغرافیایی و سابقه لرزه‏خیزی بسیاری از شهرهای ایران، از جمله تهران، توجه به موضوع آسیب‏پذیری از زلزله را در رشته‏ها و تخصص‏های گوناگون ملزم نموده است. برنامه‏ریزی شهری به دلیل ماهیت خود، این مسئله را در بافت‏های شهری مورد بررسی قرار می‏دهد. در همین راستا، پژوهش حاضر با بررسی و مطالعه متون و اسناد مرتبط با زلزله و نقش برنامه‏ریزی شهری در کاهش اثرات آن و همچنین برنامه‏ریزی بافت مسکونی و ابعاد و ویژگی‏های آن، به یک مدل عملیاتی برای سنجش میزان آسیب‏پذیری بافت‏های مسکونی منطقه شش تهران از زلزله دست یافته است. بر مبنای این مدل، معیارهای لازم به منظور بررسی میزان آسیب‏پذیری تعیین گردید. براساس معیارهای یادشده، منطقه شش تهران به تفکیک محله‏های مسکونی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. سنجش میزان آسیب‏پذیری محلات مسکونی مورد بررسی، بر مبنای مقدار استخراج شده برای معیارهای ارزیابی و با استفاده از روش AHP صورت گرفت. در نهایت، اهداف، راهبردها و سیاست‏های لازم برای کاهش میزان آسیب‏پذیری با توجه به ضریب اهمیت‏های به دست آمده با استفاده از همین روش، به تفکیک محلات 17 گانه مورد بررسی تدوین گردید. براساس نتایج به دست آمده از بررسی‏ها و محاسبات انجام شده در پژوهش حاضر، اتخاذ راهکارهایی در پنج دسته شکل کلی بافت مسکونی (قطعه‌بندی، توزیع کاربری‌ها، همجواری‌ها و...)، فضاهای سبز و باز عمومی، شبکه دسترسی، تراکم جمعیت و کنترل و نظارت بر ساخت‌وساز می‌تواند در ارتقای ایمنی محله‌های منطقه شش در برابر زلزله مؤثر واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of vulnerability of residential areas to earthquake disasters and it's planning guidelines (Case study: District number 6, Tehran municipality)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Manouchehr Tabibian 1
  • negin mozafari 2
1 School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Geographical location and seismic records of many Iranian cities, including Tehran, draw attention to the vulnerability to earthquake hazards in various fields and specialties. Due to its nature, urban planning examines this issue in the urban fabrics. In line with this, the present study investigates the texts and documents related to the earthquake and the role of urban planning in reducing its effects in terms of safety issues of settlements as well as crisis management. The residential fabric planning and its dimensions and features (including land use, plotting, texture formation, density, communication network, open space, service centers), as interfaces between the residential fabric and vulnerability, and thus the linkage between crisis management in these contexts and urban planning provides an operational model for earthquake vulnerability assessment of the residential areas in the 6th District of Tehran. This model is based on two important issues related to earthquake: the destruction rate and the number of human casualties, divided accordingly into two categories of factors and sub-factors. Based on this model, indicators were determined to study the vulnerability level. The physical resistance index of the fabric was extracted from the first category of the model sub-factors and the post-crisis fabric accountability index was extracted from the second one. Based on these 15 indicators, the vulnerability of the 6th District of Tehran was investigated separately for the residential neighborhoods. The vulnerability of residential neighborhoods was evaluated based on the values of evaluation factors extracted using the AHP method. Finally, the goals, strategies and policies needed to reduce the vulnerability according to the coefficient of significance were obtained separately for 7 neighborhoods using the same method. Based on the results, the following measures can be effective in promoting the safety of neighborhoods in the 6th district against earthquakes: setting objectives for increasing the physical strength of the fabric in order to reduce the destruction rate and increase the fabric efficiency in post-crisis response and relief efforts to reduce human mortality, and adopting strategies for increasing resistance in residential buildings and to strengthen the role and efficiency of open spaces, creating and strengthening an effective access network appropriate for the population, and controlling and guiding demographic indicators. In general, the proposed solutions are developed in five categories: the general form of residential fabric (segmentation, distribution, neighborhood...), green spaces and public open spaces, access networks, population density, and construction monitoring and supervision. Finally, the spatial priority of the implementation of proposed policies for neighborhoods, as well as the priority of policy implementation in each neighborhood is determined to look at the developed goals and strategies more efficiently.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Earthquake
  • Residential Planning
  • Vulnerability
  • Urban Fabric
  • Risk Assessment
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