عنوان مقاله [English]
So far, many studies have been carried out on the presence and activity of various age groups in the urban environment, including children, youth and adults. Attention to adolescents as an age group with specific needs has a relatively long history in foreign countries. Its first spells can be attributed to Lynch’s 1977 study. In his study, “Growing Up in Cities”, he studied a small group of adolescents in different cities to discover their use and value to their surroundings, and to understand the importance of urban spaces as vital resources for their growth from adolescence to adulthood. The research inspired further research on adolescents and their local environment. Since the mid-1990s, researchers have shown their interest in more extreme studies on the underlying government policies and strategies that lead to the isolation of adolescents from public spaces through monitoring their movements and neglecting activities such as skateboarding and graffiti. Over the past two decades, the trend of urban planners and designers in adolescent studies has also increased significantly in foreign countries, especially in European ones. On the other hand, it is believed today that dominant approaches and urban laws cause various social, economic, social and sexual discrimination among citizens. On the basis of such discrimination, the majority of public and active spaces of the city are at the disposal of adults while children and adolescents are on the sidelines. In Iran, however, the adolescent group remains largely ignored and most of their needs are not studied as an independent age group. In the present study, therefore, we try to focus on the activity of adolescents – as one of the groups not covered in our urban studies – in their favorite urban spaces. It is because this age group, on one hand, is considered a potentially very important part of the users of urban spaces, and, on the other hand, adolescents require to be present in urban spaces, experience a variety of social roles, and test their abilities in this context in order to grow as a person with a social identity. In line with this, Azadi Street, center of RajaeiShahr district, was selected as the case study, and 250 adolescents from 12 to 19 years old were chosen to be investigated through a questionnaire involving items about their activities and their level of satisfaction with environmental quality of the streets. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (independent t-test and multivariate regression). The analysis indicates that 11% and 74% of the teens go to the streets on a daily and weekly basis, respectively, often in the evening, along with their friends for window shopping, sitting at the parks, and watching other people. The highest to the lowest satisfaction level of adolescents with the components of environmental qualities of the street is related to security, accessibility, attractiveness, convenience, and comfort. With the exception of attractiveness, significant differences were found between boys and girls in terms of their satisfaction with the quality of environmental components. The results of the regression model also showed that 43% of boys’ and 75% of girls’ activity can be predicted by the components of environmental quality. Attractiveness and comfort are more important for boys and attractiveness, safety, convenience and comfort are considerably important and effective for girls.
Al Arasi, H. A. (2013). A Study on Children's Perception of Their Local Living Environment. (Master of Science ), University of Twente, Netherlands. Retrieved from https://webapps.itc.utwente.nl/librarywww/papers_2013/msc/upm/alarasi.pdf
Byrne, T., Nixon, E., Mayock, P., & Whyte, J. (2006). Free-time and Leisure Needs of Young People Living in Disadvantaged Communities. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency.
Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L. G., & Stone, A. M. (1992). Public Space (S. Carr Ed. illustrated, reprint ed.): Cambridge University Press.
Chawla, L., & Malone, K. (2003). Neighborhood Quality in Children’s Eyes. In P. Christensen & M. O'Brien (Eds.), Children in the City: Home, Neighborhood and Community (illustrated ed., pp. pp.118-141). London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Cohen DA., Ashwood JS., Scott MM., Overton A., Evenson KR., Staten LK., . . . D., C. (2006). Public Parks and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls. Pediatrics, 118(5), 1381-1389. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1226
Commissioner for Children and Young People, W. (2011). Building Spaces and Places for Children and Young People. In (pp. 27). Retrieved from http://beactive.dsr.wa.gov.au/assets/files/Guidelines/Built%20Environment%20Report%20Final.pdf
Curtis, A. C. (2015). Defining Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent and Family Health, 7(2), 1-39.
Ding, D., Sallis, J. F., Kerr, J., Lee, S., & Rosenberg, D. E. (2011). Neighborhood Environment and Physical Activity among Youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(4), 442-455. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.036
Duzenli, T., Bayramoglu, E., & Ӧzbilen, A. (2010). Needs and Preferences of Adolescents in Open Urban Spaces. Journal of Scientific Research and Essays, 5(2), 201-216.
Edwards, N., Hooper, P., Knuiman, M., Foster, S., & Giles-Corti, B. (2015). Associations between park features and adolescent park use for physical activity. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 21. doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0178-4
Gardsjord, H. S., Tveit, M. S., & Nordh, H. (2014). Promoting Youth’s Physical Activity through Park Design: Linking Theory and Practice in a Public Health. Landscape Research, 39(1), 70-81. doi:10.1080/01426397.2013.793764
Gehl, I. (2010). Cities for People. London: Island Press.
Hanachee, P., & Azad Armaki, M. (2012). Visual Perception of Chizar District by Chizarian Adolescents. Motale’ate Shahre Irani-Eslami Journal, 7, 87-97.
Hatzopoulos, P., & Clancey, G. (2007). Meeting Places, Where People & Places Meet: Approaches to Public Space Management. In (pp. 27). Retrieved from www.yapa.org.au/youth/facts/meetingplaces.php
Hume, C., Timperio, A., Ball, K., Salmon, J., Andrianopoulos, N., & Crawford, D. (2004). Public open spaces: what features encourage children to be active? Summary report. In (pp. 32). Retrieved from https://www.deakin.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/307017/book-12.pdf
Kato, Y. (2009). Doing Consumption and Sitting Cars: Adolescent Bodies in Suburban Commercial Spaces. Children’s Geographies, 7(1), 51-66. doi:10.1080/14733280802630908
Khodaei, Z., & Rafieian, M. (2012). Youth satisfaction assessment on urban public environment. Refahe Ejtemaei 12(44), 43-68.
Lynch, K. (1977). Growing up in Cities: Studies of the Spatial Environment of Adolescence in Cracow, Melbourne, Mexioco City, Salta, Toluca and Warszawa (K. Lynch Ed.). London: MIT Press.
Madanipour, A. (2008). Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process. Tehran: Sherkate Pardazesh va Barnamerizie Shahre Tehran.
Owens, P. E. (2002). No teens allowed: the exclusion of adolescents from public spaces. Landscape Journal, 21(1), 156-163.
Pakzad, J. (2010). Urban Design Theory and Process (4th ed.). Tehran: Shahidi Press.
Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E. B. (2008). Ecological Models of Health Behavior. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, & K. Viswanath (Eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 465-485). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shaftoe, H. (2008). Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Places. Sterling: Earthscan.
Shearer, S., & Walters, P. (2015). Young People’s Lived Experience of the ‘Street’ in North Lakes Master Planned Estate. Children’s Geographies, 13(5), 604–617.
Statistical Center of Iran. (2011). National census of Iran. Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran
Travlou, P. (2003). Teenagers and Public Space; Literature Review. In. Retrieved from http://www.openspace.eca.ed.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Teenagers-and-Public-Space-literature-review.pdf
Van Hecke, L., Deforche, B., Van Dyck, D., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Veitch, J., & Van Cauwenberg, J. (2016). Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0155686. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155686
Versteeg, E. (2003). Planning and Design of Open Space to promote Adolescent Development. (Master of Landscape Architecture), The University of Guelph,
Von Bredow, K. W. (2006). Gathering Spaces: Designing Places for Adolescents. (Master of Landscape Architecture), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia.
Whyte, W. H. (2013). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (M. Habibi & M. H. Ghiaei, Trans.). Tehran: University of Art.
World Health Organization. (1975). Pregnancy and Abortion in Adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/