ارزیابی مراکز شهری مبتنی بر رویکرد پاسخ‌دهی محیطی (نمونه موردی: منطقه مرکزی شهر گنبدکاووس)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

2 گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی معماری، دانشگاه بین‌الملل امام خمینی، قزوین

چکیده

بخش مرکزی شهر به عنوان یکی از اجزای اصلی شهر، همواره در طول تاریخ حائز اهمیت بوده‌است. اقشار مختلف مردم با اهداف مختلف، نیاز به حضور و تردد در مراکز شهرها را دارند. این درحالی است که فضاهای شهری برای شکل‌گیری بسیاری از خاطرات اجتماعی و برقراری تعاملات نیز می‌توانند کمک‌کننده باشند. طراحی محیط شهری به‌عنوان بستر مناسب برای حضور گسترده شهروندان، می‌تواند بسیاری از نیازهای آنها را به نحو مطلوبی پاسخ دهد. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی معیارهای تأثیرگذار بر ارتقای مفهوم پاسخ‌دهی به کاربران و ایجاد رضایت در آنهاست. در این پژوهش بافت تاریخی بخش مرکزی شهر گنبدکاووس به‌عنوان یکی از فضاهای عمومی مهم انتخاب شده‌ و به‌دنبال پاسخ بدین سئوال است که مؤلفه‌های پاسخ‌ده در بخش مرکزی شهر گنبدکاووس برای ارزیابی و راهکارهای بهبود آن کدام‌ها‌ هستند. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی بوده و با استفاده از روش تحقیق کیفی و راهبرد پیمایشی غیرمستقیم مبتنی بر نظر خبرگان برای تدوین مؤلفه‌ها استفاده شده‌است. خبرگان از میان اساتید دانشگاه در رشته معماری و مدیران شهری و دانشجویان رشته معماری، پیرامون موضوع تحقیق تعیین شده‌اند. شناخت متغیرهای پژوهش به واسطه تحلیل ادبیات موضوع، از طریق استدلال منطقی در راستای دستیابی به راهکارهای اجرایی بهینه در حوزه پاسخ‌دهی محیطی مراکز شهری انجام شده‌است. با مطالعه ادبیات موضوع معیارهایی همچون دسترسی، تنوع استفاده از زمین، خوانایی، نفوذپذیری، غنا (توانگری)، تمرکز و تراکم استفاده از فضای زمین، تناسبات بصری، انعطاف‌پذیری، خصوصی‌سازی و ساختار سازمان‌دهی استخراج به وسیله خبرگان اولویت‌بندی شده‌اند. مجموعه‌ای از استراتژی‌ها به منظور تقویت و بهبود وضعیت موجود همچون ایجاد تنوع استفاده از زمین، تقویت تناسبات بصری، حفظ و تقویت هویت و حس مکان، ایجاد یک ساختار سازمان‌دهی، ایجاد و تقویت انعطاف‌پذیری و تقویت نفوذپذیری نیز مبتنی بر تکنیک تاپسیس فازی به وسیله خبرگان ارزیابی و درنهایت برای اجرا اولویت‌بندی خواهند شد. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان‌ می‌دهد که از میان مؤلفه‌های مورد بررسی، اهمیت دسترسی به مجموعه با توجه به تسهیل در امکان رفت‌و‌آمد و حضور راحت به مجموعه در بالاترین اولویت قرار گرفته ‌است. سپس تنوع در کاربری‌های موجود برای پاسخگویی به نیازهای متفاوت کاربران و تنوع در ایجاد فرم‌ها، به ایجاد جذابیت بیشتر مجموعه کمک شایانی خواهد کرد. مؤلفه‌های خوانایی و نفوذپذیری نیز در یافتن هرچه بهتر مجموعه و فضاهای آن بسیار حائز اهمیت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Evaluation of Urban Centers based on Environmental Responsiveness (Case Study: Gonbad-e Kavus Urban Center, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • minou Gharehbaglou 1
  • ahad nezhadebrahimi 2
  • maliheh javidmehr 3
1 Department of architecture, faculty of architecture and urbanism, Tabriz islamic art university,Tabriz. Iran.
2 Department of architecture, Faculty of architecture and urbanism, Tabriz islamic art university, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Ph.D Student in Architecture, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
چکیده [English]

As key elements of cities, urban areas have always been an important issue in the history of urban studies. People of various social strata may need to visit and/or pass through urban areas with different goals on a regular basis. In this sense, urban spaces can play an important role in forming social interactions and shaping people’s memories. The optimal design of an urban environment as a suitable context for extensive social interactions can help to meet the needs of citizens in an effective way. Urban areas are considered as the core context for social and economic interactions in cities. Insofar as they facilitate the presence and mobility of people, urban areas act as the beating hearts of cities and have an important role in establishing communication among various members of the society. This study aims to investigate the historic textureof Gonbad-e Kavus urban area which is one of the most important public spaces in Gonbad-e Kavus and home to major economic and recreational centers. The main objective of this study is to comprehensively identify the factors that enhance the responsiveness of urban areas as well as the criteria that help to achieve user satisfaction. The main research question addresses the degree of importance of factors that influence the responsiveness of the studied urban area, which is why it is essential to identify them clearly. In addition, improving the responsiveness of urban areas via considering the importance of influencing factors is the idea behind the second research question. The present study is an applied research in terms of its objective and a descriptive-analytical research in terms of its methodology. The process of identifying effective factors was based on a qualitative research strategy conducted through an indirect survey tactic based on expert opinions collected from a community of urban planners, professors and students of architecture. The sample size was determined by Cochran’s sample size formula and the participants were randomly selected via the snowball sampling method. The variables were identified based on theoretical studies through an extensive review of the related literature in order to achieve appropriate executive strategies for enhancing the environmental responsiveness of urban areas. Based on the literature review, a comprehensive set of responsiveness criteria was identified and prioritized by experts, including accessibility, land use diversity, legibility, permeability, richness, concentration or density of land use, visual proportions, flexibility, privatization and structure of organization. Considering the current condition of Gonbad-e Kavus urban area, a comprehensive set of effective strategies was evaluated and proposed for improving the current indices of environmental responsiveness. The results indicate that, among the evaluated strategies, the accessibility, diversity and legibility strategies have the highest levels of priority, in order of importance, for improving the responsiveness of Gonbad-e Kavus urban area. Given its role in facilitating commuting and convenient access to this area, accessibility is identified as the first priority. In addition, the diversity of existing land use patterns for meeting various user needs helps significantly to increase the appeal of this urban area for attracting a larger audience. Finally, the factors of legibility and permeability are also very important in creating a more responsive urban area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban areas
  • responsive environments
  • citizens’ needs
  • Gonbad-e Kavus

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-               Noghrehkar, A., Mozaffar, F. and Taghdir, S., (2014). Investigating the capabilities of architectural space to create a platform for responding to human needs from the perspective of Islam (Case study: Zinatolmolouk Shiraz and Boroujerdiha Houses of Kashan).Quarterly Journal of Motaleat Shahr,  NO.  15, [in Persian].

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-               Pasupuleti, R., (2013). Designing culturally responsive built environments in post disaster contexts: Tsunami affected fishing settlements in Tamilnadu, India.International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction,  NO.  6, 28-39.

-               Rafiean, M., Taghvai, A., Khademi, M. and Alipour, R., (2012). A Comparative Study of Quality Measurement Approaches in Designing Urban Public Spaces.Journal of Anjoman e Elmi Memari va Shahrsazi e Iran,  NO.  4, 35-43. [in Persian].

-               Rastbin, S., Jafary, Y., Daram, Y. and Moazezi, A., (2012). Environmental between Relationship Realm Public in Life Urban of Continuation and Qualities.Baq e Nazar Journal,  NO.  21, 35- 46. [in Persian].

-               SadeghiMoghadam, M., Mousavi, N., Solgi, G. and Azimi, S., (2014). Recreating a Vibrant City Center in Response Urban Environments by Using AHP Model (Case Study: Qazvin City Historical Context in Iran). Sociology and Anthropology, 41-45.

-               Sallis, J., Owen, N. and Fisher, E., (2008). Ecological Models of Health Behavior.Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, research, and practice,  NO.  4, 465-85.

-               Samimifar, F. and Hamzenejad, M., (2012). Validation of the New Principles of Social Stability by Relying on Islamic Ethics (in Residential Areas).Journal of Pazhouheshhaye Memari e Eslami,  NO.  1, 121-37. [in Persian].

-              

-               Shokoyi, H., (2001). New Views in Urban Geography. Samt Publications, Tehran.

-               Sotoudeh, S. and Aliabadi, M., (2015). Sustainable Architecture Responsible for Human Needs. International Conference on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Infrastructure, Proceedings of Architectural Engineering and Sustainable Development, 1-7. [in Persian].

-               Suleimani, M. and Mandgari, K., (2015). Recognition of the principles of Yazd traditional houses in response to basic psychological needs; Based on the theory derived from the field.The Journal of Honarhaye Ziba,  NO.  20, [in Persian].

-               Uzzell, D., Pol, E. and Badenes, D., (2002). Place identification, social cohesion and environmental sustainability.Environment and Behavior,  NO.  34, 1, 26-53.

-               Whyte, W., (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. The Conservation, Washington D.C.

-               Wong, I., (2009). Creating a vibrant downtown.The Monieson Center Journal.,  NO.  5, 1-8.

-               Zucker, P., (1970). Town and Square; From the agora to the village Green. The MIT Press, Massachusetts.

-               Amini, E., Boroumand, M. and Rouhafza, F., (2013). Evaluation of factors affecting the increase in the quality of public spaces in new cities, case study: new town of Parand.Quarterly of Amayesh e Mohit,  NO.  26, 89-110. [in Persian].

-               Aragonés, J., Francescato, G. and Garling, T., (2002). Residential Environments: Choice, Satisfaction and Behavior. Bergin & Garvey, London.

-               Bentley, I., Alcock, A., Murrain, P., McGlynn, S. and Smith, G., (2011). Responsive Environments a Manual For Designers. Iran University of Science and Technology press,

-               Carmona, E., (2009). public places urban spaces. Tehran University of Art, Tehran

-               Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, LG. and Stone, AM., (1992). Public Space. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,

-               Foroutan, A. and Beigi, Sh., (2011). Gonbad-Kavoos: History, Land, Culture, Conduct. ,

-               Francis, M., (2003). Urban open space: Designing for user needs. Island  Press, Washington D.C.,

-               Gehl, J., (1987). Life Between Building: Using Public Space. . New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.,

-               Google‌earth, (2016). Google earth V 7.1.5.1557. Gonbad Kavus, Iran. 37° 15’ 28.69”N, 55° 10’ 08.47”E, Eye alt 1377 feet. Digital Globe 2016. http://www.earth.google.com, 2016, April 16.

-               Habibi, A., Izadiyar, S. and Sarafrazi, A., (2014). Fuzzy Multidisciplinary Decision Making. Katibeh Gil Publications,

-               Habibi, M. and Behnamifard, F., (2016). Investigating the Responsibility of Urban Spaces to the Needs of the Adolescent Group (Case Study: Azadi Avenue, Karaj).journal of Nameh Memari va Shahrsazi, Tehran Art University,  NO.  17, 139-54. [in Persian].

-               Jacobs, J., (1993). Tod und Lebengrober Amerikanischer Stadte. Verlage uhlstein GmbH, Frankfurt.,

-               Jalili, M., Einifar, A. and Talischi, G., (2013). Outdoor residential complexes and environmental response: A comparative study of three residential complexes in Hamedan.Journal of Honarhaye Ziba,  NO.  4, 57-68. [in Persian].

-               Kargar, T. and Gharahbaglou, M., (2015). The secret of the survival of the Jolfa Isfahan podium as a third place. Proceedings of Architectural and Sustainable Development, International Conference of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Infrastructure, 1-14. [in Persian].

-               Kashanijou, K., (2006). The Importance of pedestrian Spaces in Third Millennium Cities.Journal of Jostarhaye Shahrsazi,  NO.  17 & 18, 40-51. [in Persian].

-               Kashanijou, K., (2010). Recognizing Theoretical Approaches to Urban Public Spaces.journal of Hoviyyat e Shahr,  NO.  6, 95-106. [in Persian].

-               Kokabi, A., (2007). Criteria for assessing the quality of urban life in urban centers.journal of Hoviyyat e Shahr,  NO.  1, 75-86. [in Persian].

-               Kokabi, A., Pourjafar, M. and Shabani, A., (2005). Planning the quality of urban life in Urban Centers, Definitions and Indicators.Journal of Jostarhaye Shahrsazi,  NO.  12, 6-12. [in Persian].

-               Lopes, M. and Camanho, A., (2013). Public Green Space Use and Consequences on Urban Vitality: An Assessment of European Cities.Springer Science Business Media journal,  NO.  113, 3, 1-17.

-               Lynch, K. and Hack, G., (1984). Site Planning. MIT Press, Cambridge.

-               Mansournia, S., Qaraee, F. and Bahrami, B., (2016). Behavior settings of the approach to assessing the response rate of urban spaces.Quarterly Journal of Motaleat e Shahri,  NO. 18, 77-90. [in Persian].

-               Noghrehkar, A., Mozaffar, F. and Taghdir, S., (2014). Investigating the capabilities of architectural space to create a platform for responding to human needs from the perspective of Islam (Case study: Zinatolmolouk Shiraz and Boroujerdiha Houses of Kashan).Quarterly Journal of Motaleat Shahr,  NO.  15, [in Persian].

-               Pakzad, J., (2007). Garlic Thought in Urbanism (2): From quantity to quality. Omran e Shahrhaye Jadid Company, Tehran.

-               Pasupuleti, R., (2013). Designing culturally responsive built environments in post disaster contexts: Tsunami affected fishing settlements in Tamilnadu, India.International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction,  NO.  6, 28-39.

-               Rafiean, M., Taghvai, A., Khademi, M. and Alipour, R., (2012). A Comparative Study of Quality Measurement Approaches in Designing Urban Public Spaces.Journal of Anjoman e Elmi Memari va Shahrsazi e Iran,  NO.  4, 35-43. [in Persian].

-               Rastbin, S., Jafary, Y., Daram, Y. and Moazezi, A., (2012). Environmental between Relationship Realm Public in Life Urban of Continuation and Qualities.Baq e Nazar Journal,  NO.  21, 35- 46. [in Persian].

-               SadeghiMoghadam, M., Mousavi, N., Solgi, G. and Azimi, S., (2014). Recreating a Vibrant City Center in Response Urban Environments by Using AHP Model (Case Study: Qazvin City Historical Context in Iran). Sociology and Anthropology, 41-45.

-               Sallis, J., Owen, N. and Fisher, E., (2008). Ecological Models of Health Behavior.Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, research, and practice,  NO.  4, 465-85.

-               Samimifar, F. and Hamzenejad, M., (2012). Validation of the New Principles of Social Stability by Relying on Islamic Ethics (in Residential Areas).Journal of Pazhouheshhaye Memari e Eslami,  NO.  1, 121-37. [in Persian].

-              

-               Shokoyi, H., (2001). New Views in Urban Geography. Samt Publications, Tehran.

-               Sotoudeh, S. and Aliabadi, M., (2015). Sustainable Architecture Responsible for Human Needs. International Conference on Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Infrastructure, Proceedings of Architectural Engineering and Sustainable Development, 1-7. [in Persian].

-               Suleimani, M. and Mandgari, K., (2015). Recognition of the principles of Yazd traditional houses in response to basic psychological needs; Based on the theory derived from the field.The Journal of Honarhaye Ziba,  NO.  20, [in Persian].

-               Uzzell, D., Pol, E. and Badenes, D., (2002). Place identification, social cohesion and environmental sustainability.Environment and Behavior,  NO.  34, 1, 26-53.

-               Whyte, W., (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. The Conservation, Washington D.C.

-               Wong, I., (2009). Creating a vibrant downtown.The Monieson Center Journal.,  NO.  5, 1-8.

-               Zucker, P., (1970). Town and Square; From the agora to the village Green. The MIT Press, Massachusetts.