برنامه ریزی راهبردی گردشگری شهری با رویکرد بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا در بافت های تاریخی (نمونه موردی: بافت قدیم شهر رشت)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه ازاد واحد تهران مرکز

چکیده

بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا و گردشگری فرهنگی، دو روی سکه نوسازی بافت های ارزشمند شهری محسوب می شوند؛ اولی فرایندی همه جانبه برای نجات بافت قدیم شهر از اضمحلال کالبد و فعالیت و دومی رهیافتی کارآمد با بُن مایه مشارکت مردم، میراث فرهنگی و هنر در بسیج نیروهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی بافت قلمداد می شوند. در این مقاله تعامل این دو در چارچوب برنامه ریزی راهبردی توسعه گردشگری فرهنگیِ بافت قدیم شهر رشت که محدوده محلات زاهدان و ساغریسازان را در بر می گیرد، مورد کنکاش قرار گرفته است. روش تحقیق توصیفی_تحلیلی بوده و از ترکیبی از ابزارهای کیفی و کمی شامل پرسشنامه و جداول تحلیل عوامل درونی و بیرونی برای طبقه بندی و تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهند که بافت قدیم شهر رشت با وجود دارا بودن منابع فرهنگی درون خود، به دلیل ضعف زیرساخت های گردشگری فرهنگی و عدم خلاقیت در کاربست فرهنگ و هنر در فرایند بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا نتوانسته از این منابع محلی بهره جوید. در راستای بهره گیری از این ظرفیت ها، راهبردهای دارای اولویت به همراه سیاست های اجرایی و برنامه اقدامات به منظور فعالسازی این ظرفیت ها برای توسعه گردشگری فرهنگی در عین حفاظت فعال از هویت و میراث بافت، تدوین شدند. ایجاد جاذبه های گردشگری نو و متفاوت با احیای سنت های آیینی و بومی بافت و ارائه به گردشگران، بهسازی بناهای تاریخی با تزریق فعالیت های جاذب برای گردشگران و پیاده­راه سازی محور دارای قابلیت بازار_ خواهر امام _زرجوب از جمله با اولویت ترین راهبردهای تدوین شده برای بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا از طریق گردشگری شهری در بافت قدیم شهر رشت  محسوب می شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Urban Tourism Strategic Planning Using Culture-led Urban Regeneration Approach in Historical part (Case study: Old district of Rasht city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • musa pazhoohan 1
  • zahra poormoghadam 2
1 tehran
2 دانشگاه ازاد واحد تهران مرکز
چکیده [English]

The culture-led urban regeneration and cultural tourism are two sides of a coin in the renovation of valuable urban areas. The first is a comprehensive process for saving the deteriorated urban areas of the city from the destruction of physic and activity, and the latter is the most effective way of promoting people’s participation, culture and art and mobilizing social and cultural forces for old urban areas.  Culture-led urban regeneration is one of the most recent approaches to sustainable urban regeneration, which, after many years of experience, has proved its legitimacy not only as a theoretical approach, but also as a practical strategy for the modernization and improvement of the old neighborhoods. The contribution of the cultural and human heritage of valuable neighbors to the process of regeneration can be realized because the local economy and related businesses would be supported through tourism development and tourists’ interest in such neighborhoods. Therefore, the culture-led urban regeneration through tourism development can be considered as one of the most promising solutions for the sustainable regeneration of old towns. When tourism is considered as way of rehabilitation of the underlying culture, culture-based tourism is clearly intended. Cultural tourism is defined as a type of tourism whose main purpose is to spread the horizons of knowledge through the discovery of artistic heritage or architecture of a land. This article investigates the interaction of the two in the framework of strategic planning of cultural tourism development in the old fabric of Rasht, which covers the Zahedan and Sagharisazan neighborhoods. The research method is descriptive-analytic, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative tools, including a questionnaire, for data collection. The internal and external factors are evaluated through a panel of 30 local experts, including experts from the Municipality and Cultural Heritage and Tourism Department. The sampling method was snowball sampling due to the uncertainty of the population. The results show that, despite having its own cultural resources, the old fabric of Rasht has not been able to use local resources due to the weakness of the cultural tourism infrastructure and the lack of creativity in the use of art and culture in the process of culture-led urban regeneration. Prioritized strategies, executive policies and action plans were developed for mobilizing cultural and artistic sources in developing cultural tourism while actively protecting cultural heritage and identity simultaneously. Creating new and different tourist attractions through reviving ritual traditions, improving historic buildings by planning attractive activities for tourists and pedestrinization of Bazar-Khahar-e- Imam –Zarjub are among the most prioritized strategies designed for cultural-led urban regeneration through urban tourism in the old fabric of Rasht. Besides, the results of this article show that the plan for tourism development in the Iranian historical neighborhoods should be a long-term plan that prioritizes the provision of infrastructure and changes in short-term views towards urban management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cultural-led urban regeneration
  • urban tourism
  • strategic planning
  • historical neighborhoods
  • Rasht

Abbasi, H., (2011). Historical, Architectural and Cultural Attractions in Rasht, Blur Publications. [in Persian]

Aminzadeh, B, and Dadras, R., (2012). Culture-led regeneration in Historical Context of Qazvin City with Emphasis on Urban Tourism, Two Quarterly Iranian Architectural Studies. [in Persian]

Anfuso A, Williams T, Hernández , J.A and  Pranzini , E., (2014). Coastal scenic assessment and tourism management in western Cuba, Journal of Tourism Management , No 42, pp 307-320

Bassett.  K., ( 1993). Urban cultural strategies and urban regeneration: a case study and critique, Environment and Planning A, volume 25, pp 1773-1788.

Chilardi, L., (2004). Cultural strategies: A UK approach to cultural development Part 2",Copenhagen.

Eslah Arabani, A., (1995).  Gilan Book, Volume Four. Khane NashreTehran. [in Persian]

Evans, G. (2003). Hard-Branding the Cultural City – From Prado to Prada, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Volume 27.2, June, pp. 417-440.

Fatahzadeh, Y and Davodpour, Z., (2014). Analysis of quality of life on the promotion of social capital in old and new urban centers. Case study: Sagharisazan and Golsar neighborhoods, Rasht city, first national conference on urban planning, urban management and sustainable development, Tehran, Iranian Society of Iranian Architecture. [in Persian]

Gharbi, M., (2013). Cultural regeneration, A step towards Cultural Tourism in Kerman, The First National Conference on Urbanism and Architecture over time, Qazvin, Imam Khomeini International University. [in Persian]

Golkar, K., (2015). The City / Neighborhood Outlook proposes a conceptual framework for vision statement formulation, Journal of Honarhaye ziba, Volume 24. [in Persian]

Herrero-Prieto,  L. C and  Go´mez-Vega, M, (2017).  Cultural resources as a factor in cultural tourism attraction: Technical efficiency estimation of regional destinations in Spain,  Journal of Tourism Economics, Vol. 23(2) 260–280.

Hudec, O and Džupka, P., (2017).  Culture-led regeneration through the young generation: Košice as the European Capital of Culture European Urban and Regional Studies, pp1 –8.  Sagepub.

ICOMOS (International Council on monuments and sites., (2002). International Charter of Cultural Tourism, Journal of Pole Firooze, No. 3.

Jingyi, L and Chung-Shing C., (2018).  Local cultural vicissitudes in regional tourism development: A case of Zhuhai, Tourism Management Perspectives 25, pp 80–92.

Kazemi, M., (2007). Tourism Management, Tehran, Samt Publication, Third Edition. [in Persian]

Kong, L. (2000). Culture, Economy, Policy: Trends and Developments, Geoforum, Special issue on Cultural Industries and Cultural Policies, 31(4), pp. 385–390.

Lotfi, S., (2010). Culture-led Urban regeneration, A thinking on cultural and regeneration routs. Journal of Honarhaye ziba No. 45. [in Persian]

Lugosi P, Bell,  D and Lugosi, K,. (2010). Hospitality, Culture and Regeneration: Urban Decay, Entrepreneurship and the Ruin Bars of Budapest, Urban Studies Journal, 47(14) 3079–3101.

McDonald, M. (1999). The marketing plans, how to prepare them, how to use them, journal of Butterworth Heinemann, pp.143 -155, Elsevier.

Nicula, V,  Spânub, S and  Neagua R ,E. (2013). Regional Tourism Development in Romania - Consistency with Policies and Strategies Developed at EU Level, Journal of Procedia Economics and Finance 6, pp 530 – 541

OECD, 2009; Productivity and Jobs in a Globalised World,  OECD - OECD.org, United States.

Panahandeh kahah, Musa, (2007). Strategic Assessment of Oil based city Development, Master's Thesis for Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, by Dr. Rahmat A. Farhoodi. [in Persian]

Parsoomash Consulting Engineers., (2011). Regeneration of Rasht City, Rasht municipality. [in Persian]

 

Sacco, P and  Blessi G. Tavano ,. (2009).  The Social Viability of Culture-led Urban Transformation Processes: Evidence from the Bicocca District, Milan, Urban studies, Vol 46 issue: 5-6, page(s): 1115-1135.

 

Sarafraz, N, and Sheikhi,  S., (2013). Development of urban Tourism in historical center of Dezful City with Emphasis on Cultural Regeneration, First National Conference on Geography, Tourism, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Scientific Center for Planning and Development of Sustainable Tourism of Tehran University. [in Persian]

Stratan, A, Perciunaو R, and Gribinceaa C., (2015).  Identifying Cultural Tourism Potentials in Republic of Moldova through Cultural Consumption among Tourists, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vil 188, pp 116 – 121.

Tarh Va Kavosh Consultant Engineers., (2007). Rasht city comprehensive plan, Ministry of  Housing and urban development. [in Persian]

UNESCO, 2009 The World HeritageReview, available at http://whc.unesco.org/en/publications/

Vickery, J. (2007). The Emergence of Culture-led Regeneration: A policy concept and its discontents, Centre for Cultural Policy Studies University of Warwick Research Papers No. 9, Series Editors: Oliver Bennett and Jeremy Ahearne.

Wheelen, T. L and Hunger, J. D. (1995). Strategic management and business policy (5th edition). Reading, MA : Addison – Wesley publication.

 Yilin, C and Hsing, W.C., (2009). Culture-led Urban Regeneration and Community Mobilisation: The Case of the Taipei Bao-an Temple Area, Taiwan, Journal of Urban Studies, Vol 46(7) 1317–1342.

Zahra, A and Ryan, C, (2006). From chaos to cohesion—Complexity in tourism structures: An analysis of New Zealand’s regional tourism organizations, Tourism Management , No 28.