ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper



Geometrical shape of Chaharbagh axis –one of the main historical axes in Isfahan, Iran, belonging to the Safavid era- has seen much evolution and development over time. Furthermore, it has experienced historical changes consistently over the different periods .The basic structure of Chaharbagh Street, the masterpiece of urban design in Isfahan, dating back to the Safavid era, is based on patterns and geometric shapes and forms the main subject of this paper. Studies show that the main focus of Iranian architecture and urbanism is based on aesthetic perspective and Iranians have always placed a great deal of importance on beauty and aesthetics of space and have considered science of geometry as a powerful tool to achieve  create balance, harmony, beauty and order in space. Architecture of the Islamic period with their hidden geometry inspired the viewer's eyes to be illuminated with the beauty of existence. In fact, numbers, proportions and patterns were  used and connected, the to create the beauty. In addition to the geometric patterns and their related numbers, Islamic architecture applied sacred meanings to the system which played a symbolic role which people comprehended. It seems that, in this case, geometry was used as the way to create level, volume and sacred symbols. Thus, in designing the shapes and forms, Iranian architecture communicates between proportions
based on abstract and supernatural principles. Forms expressed with symbolic language is named holy geometry and have remained over time. In the traditional world, geometry is inseparable from the rest of the pythagorean sciences such as arithmetic, music and astronomy. Architecture that was closely linked with geometry was often of holy and important places to manifest of truth.Thus, in the Safavid era, people created a heavenly place through architecture for themselves which paid attention to the beauty and holiness of a place.Iranians were trying to apply proportion in the dimensions of the buildings to reflect the cosmic relations which were included in the golden ratio. Indeed, using the geometric in design as an art form to create shapes, patterns and proportions, reminds us of the importance ofarchitecture in the world.Therefore, in this study the use of geometric measures and seeking transfer sizes (modules) are an important basis for creating aesthetic beauty in the Chaharbagh axis. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis based on the historical literature, books, and maps, extracted forms and geometric proportions of Chaharbagh in the Safavid period. Then, formation of the Chaharbagh was elicited by using the aesthetic value of geometric design. The result of the analysis in this paper indicates that Chaharbagh of the Safavid era communicated comprehensively the material and the spiritual and geometric proportions merge forms to comply with a sense of value Proportions had established a coordinated structure, between the components and totality and show the extreme usage of geometric role in the beautiful Persian architecture.


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