Referencing style of Motaleate Shahri is based on the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines.
The in-text citation for Motaleate Shahri includes the author's last name and the year of publication and pages in parenthesis. For Persian sources (author or translation) author's last name must be written in Farsi and the year of publication should be in the solar calendar. For Latin sources, the author's last name must be written in English and the year of publication should be in the Gregorian calendar.
- If the source has only one author, author's last name should be followed by the year of publication and page(s) (Author's name, year: page number). Example: (Ahmadi, 2018: 48).
- If the source has two authors, last names of both authors should be followed by the year of publication and page or pages (The first author's name & the second author's name, year: page number). Example (Ahmadi & Saberi, 2018: 48).
- If the source has three authors or more, the first author's last name should be followed by "et al.", the year of publication and page or pages: (Ahmadi et al., 2018: 48).
Whenever you cite the source within the text, use the word "and" between the authors' names and use the year of publication and page(s) ( If possible). Example:
In their study, Ahmadi and Saberi (2018, 48) found that ...
Preparing the Reference List
References must be ordered alphabetically and for multiple sources written by the same author, they must be chronologically ordered from the oldest to most recent. If there is more than one source written by one author in the same year, the sources should be identified by alphabetical letters (after the publication date) in the Reference list.
Here are some examples of some of the most commonly used resources:
- Journal article:
Mohammadzadeh Sh. & Mansouri, S. A. (2019). The Relationship between Mozafaria Complex and the Spatial Organization of Tabriz City from the Qara Qoyunlu to the Qajar Period. Bagh-e Nazar, 15(68), 15-26.
- Conference paper:
Neal, J. T. (1971). Education – technology or art? Conference proceedings of the 15th biennial conference held in Adelaide. Conducted by the Library Association of Australia. Sydney: Library Association.
Popper, K. R. (2002). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. (2nd ed.). London & New York: Routledge.
- Translated book:
Luria, A. R. (1968). The mind of a mnemonist: a little book about a vast memor (L. Solotaroff, Trans.). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1967).
- A section of a book with author(s) and editor(s):
Hartley, J. T., Harker, O. J., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980’s: psychological issues. Washington: American Psychological Association.
- A section of a book with editor(s):
Driver, E. & Broisen, A. (Eds). (1989). Child sexual abuse. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Education Ltd.
- Unpublished thesis:
Little, P. (1965). Helplessness, depression and mood in end stage renal disease. Unpublished master’s thesis. Wits University, Johannesburg, South Africa.
- Online referencing:
Holmes, A. (1998). Greenpeace wins media war. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/international/green25.htm
GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/