ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper



The concepts of place and sense of place have attracted many contemporary researchers in the field of urban design and planning. In the past, cities had a higher ability to establish connection between humans and space. Today, however, cities consist of many spaces without identity and meaning which are produced through a process of homogenization emerging from capitalist urbanization. The production of non-places and identical spaces has marginalized the identity of local places and cultures. By using inconsistent pattern with the site context, only human's temporary needs will be resolved and regardless of place concept and a sense of place, urban spaces are formed in cities. Promotion of placelessness is the only feature of this kind of urban spaces making.
This research, by studying the fundamentals of place and the sense of place, examines the question of whether an integrated urban street has a unique sense of place in all its small parts such as its sequences. Through a critical review of different place features and models for evaluation of sense of place, a new model was synthesized. This model was then been used to analyze a case study in Urmia city (different sections of Imam Khomeini Street). Division of Emam Khomeini Street to different parts are based on people’s mental images  and perception of this street. Three methods were used for analyzing this urban space. In the first method, according to the writer's field observation and final model ( presented in this study), Emam Khomeini street was analyzed. In the second method, results of the questionnaire  based on some spatial words that describe the quality of urban spaces were presented. In the third method, parts of Emam Khomeini Street were analyzed using land use maps and land use distribution patterns. According to the findings, different parts of Imam Khomeini Street have different identities and thus create different senses of places. in addition, the amount of land use vitality in these parts of Emam Khomeini Street supported this fact.based on the results of this study, the amount of contribution of each parts are determined according to four factors (perceptual, physical, social and functional) presented in the model. Using this item can identify which aspect needs to be upgraded or modified in each section. In other words, the overall framework for improving urban spaces is clarified. In the third sequence, perceptual, physical and social factors and in first sequence, functional factor should be modified, and these amendments can improve spatial integration.
The research method used was descriptive-analytical using various methods such as library study, documentation and presence in the environment and questionnaire for data collection (field observations and questionnaire design and interviewing). The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that different sections of Emam Khomeini Axis have different impacts on people’s sense of place and meanings of the street.


Main Subjects

  1. Lynch, K. (1997). A theory of city form. (Translated by Hossein Bahrain). Tehran University Press: Tehran. [in Persian]
  2. Frouzandeh, A., and Motallebi, Gh (2011), Concept of sense of place and its component, Hoviate shahr journal, No 8, pp 27-37. [in Persian]
  3. Rikhtegaran, M. (2001). Phenomenology and philosophy of exzitias, Development and Science and Research Institute of Iran, Tehran. [in Persian]
  4. Habibi, R (2008), mental images and the concept of place, Honarhaye ziba journal, No 35, pp 39-50. [in Persian]
  5. Falahat, MS (2006), The concept of sense of place and the factors shaping it, Honarhaye ziba journal, No 26, summer, pp 57-66. [in Persian]
  6. Partovi, P (2008), phenomenological of place, Arts Academy of the Islamic Republic of Iran. [in Persian]
  7. Canter,D(1971), The Psychology of place, The architectural press, London.
  8. Cross, Jennifer E(2001), What is sense of place, research on place & space website.
  9. Pretty, G. H, Chipuer, H. M. and Bramston, P.(2003).Sense of place amongst adolescents and adults in two rural Australian towns: the discriminating features of place attachment, sense of community and place dependence in relation to place identity, journal of Enviromental psychology, 23: 273 – 287.
  10. Hummon, D(1992), Community Attachment: Local Sentiment & Sense of place, plenum, New York.
  11. Harrison, S. and Dourish, P,(1996), Re-Place-ing space:The roles of place and space in collaborative systems. proc .CSCW 96. ACMM Press.
  12. Norberg schulz,christen(1975), Meaning in western architecture, praeger publishers,New York.
  13. Relph, E.(1976), Place and placelessness, pion, London.
  14. Seamon, David(1982),The phenomenological contribution to environmental psycology, Journal of environmental psycology, no 2, p 119-140.
  15. Seamon, David & Sowers, Jacob(2008), Place & Placelessness, Edward Relph, Human Geography, London: Sage.
  16. Shamai, Shmuel(1991), Sense of place: An empirical measurement, Israel geoforum vol 22, p 347-358.