ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.



- Improvement of residents’ quality of life
- Scale in urban regeneration programs and plans
- Unorganized, poor urban neighborhoods
- Statuses of urban regeneration projects in Iran and impact of project efficiency and residents’ quality of life
One of the most important challenges in today’s metropolises is the existence of unhealthy, poor urban neighborhoods in the peripheries. A series of regeneration policies and plans have sought to meet such a challenge over the twentieth century to provide a better quality of life for residents of such impoverished urban spaces. Such measures have hardly been successful, however. This study has assumed that a major reason for such failures has been the lack of concern for scale in urban regeneration plans and schemes. Accordingly, two main questions have been raised here. The first pertains to the reason why the concept of scale should lie at the heart of an urban regeneration plan and to the way in which such a focus can improve plans and upgrade the quality of life in an urban residence. The second question concerns the status of urban regeneration based on the criteria and indicators considered in this study and the effects it can have on project efficiency and target residents’ quality of life.  
Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework of this study has been set only to extract the indicators and criteria of the survey (questionnaire) and to measure the quality of life in the target samples. Therefore, the intellectual approaches of sustainable urban regeneration, right scale theory, expectation-efficiency model, sustainable place-making, and collision effectiveness theory have been considered in this research simply as theoretical approaches supporting the survey. However, the arguments made in these approaches and the set of controversies that can arise about each along with the relationships between them go far beyond the references cited in this article. After all, the main components of the questionnaire for assessment of the quality of life in the target samples include the theoretical approach of the right scale, providing the required coordination between the elements, the theoretical approach of collision effectiveness, providing effectiveness, the theoretical approach of sustainable place-making, affecting target residents’ quality of life, and the theoretical approach of expectation-efficiency, affecting satisfaction.
The present applied research has been designed as a systematic logical plan seeking to maximize scientific validity in the definitions, criteria, indicators, procedures, and methods of data collection and analysis and in the information and extraction and inference of the findings. Two contextual methodologies have been adopted to analyze the concept of scale, along with a survey-data methodology used to measure the quality of life. The data and information sources include censuses and questionnaires, library documents, programs and designs, and techniques of analysis, including correlation and regression (used to measure the quality of life), and meta-analysis (used to identify the scale). A set of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) criteria has been extracted in accordance with the theoretical framework of the research. The indicators and variables extracted from theoretical approaches and global and Iranian experiences have finally been used to compile a questionnaire, the descriptive and inferential results of which have been presented in the next step of the research.
Results and Discussion
The results obtained for the first question of the research demonstrate that the approaches should be implemented as local small-scale regeneration projects operated in regional integration, unlike previous approaches, in which national (government) programs and projects have been implemented as large-scale renovation projects. In addition, the concept of scale is generally used today to refer to the spatial, temporal, quantitative, or analytical dimension. Scale is also a determining factor in pattern recognition, phenomenon explanation, result generation, and program and plan optimization for regeneration and achievement of satisfaction and efficiency.
The results obtained for the second research question indicate the significance of the correlations between the number, initial energy, and locations of urban regeneration projects in all the sample cities and their impacts on target residents’ quality of life. Given the importance of this relationship (correlation) and fulfillment of the requirements for presentation of the prediction model in this field, a multivariate regression model has been proposed. The obtained model indicates that the factors of projects, initial energy and orientation can predict how target urban residents’ quality of life is affected in the present study.
Finally, what distinguishes this research from similar studies in the literature is the distinct practical outputs that it has presented in the field of urban planning as well as the focus beyond the concept of scale in its traditional sense, which has disturbed its meaning. The research findings challenge the current attitudes of urban planners and designers towards sustainable urban regeneration policies, emphasizing the significance of holistic approaches in the definition of urban place-making projects. The need has been defined not only from a physical point of view, as in Makower (2014), in the recognition of the urban scale but also from a multidisciplinary perspective, with an emphasis on socio-economic and physical approaches in the three layers of project relationships, level, and size for improvement of citizens’ quality of life and realization of their satisfaction with life in places. It seems that expansion and enrichment of the findings of this research in the field of urban planning and design requires further research, refining, for example, the concept of scale at the place level and effective socio-cultural relationships on the place formation continuum and identifying the appropriate level and effective economic relationships on the continuum.


Main Subjects

Assefa G. and Frostell B. (2007), Social Sustainability and Social Acceptance InTechnology Assessment: A Case Study of Energy Technologies, Technologies in Society (29): 63-78.
b, H., i, M., m, M. (2014). The Approaches and Policies of Urban Renewal from" Urban Reconstruction" to "Sustainable Urban Regeneration". Motaleate Shahri, 3(9), 17-30.[in persian]
Blackman, T., (1995) Urban Policy in Practice, London, Routledge.
Brenner.N, (2019) New Urban Spaces: Urban Theory and the Scale Question. New York: Oxford University Press.
Carmagni R, Capello R and Nijkamp P (2001) Managing sustainable urban environments. In Handbook of Urban Studies (Paddison R (ed.)). Sage, London, UK, pp. 124–139.
Colantonio, A. & Dixon, T. J. (2011). Urban Regeneration & Social Sustainability: Best Practice from European Cities.
Couch. (1990) Urban Renewal: Theory and Practice [Chapter 1 covers post-war approaches to the reconstruction of urban areas], Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Dissart, J.C., Deller, S.C., 2000. Quality of life in the planning literature. J. Plann. Lit. 15 (1), 135–162.
Donovan, R. et al., (2005) LARGE-SCALE URBAN REGENERATION and SUSTAINABILITY: REFLECTIONS ON THE ‘BARRIERS’ TYPOLOGY. School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
GINOT, B., (2010) Urban regeneration in Europe: state of art and perspective, an analytical study interrogating sustainability, THESIS SUBMITTED FOR DEGREE OF master of science in design and construction management program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, CHALMERS University of technology. Girardet H (1999) Creating Sustainable Cities. Green Books, Devon, UK.
Girardet, H. (1999), Creating Sustainable Cities (Schumacher Briefings 2), Green Books Ltd, Devon.
GÖTZ ,C., COOPER, I., & SHAPIRA, K., (2015) Small-Scale Projects and Their Potential for Urban Regeneration: Experiences from Eastern Germany. ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS REVIEW, VOL. 17 (2): pp 203-222.
Gouverneur,D.,(2014).  Planning and Design for Future Informal Settlements: Shaping the Self-Constructed City. Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Hancock,P,a.,(1999) Human Performance and Ergonomics, CA: Academic Press.
Hernandez Bonilla, M., (2004). Transforming public spaces in Mexico: the case of colonias populares in Xalapa, A Thesis Submitted to the University of Newcastle upon Tyne for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Hernandez Garcia, J., (2010) Production and Consumption of Open Spaces in Popular Settlements in Bogotá, A Thesis Submitted to the University of Newcastle upon Tyne for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Hopkins. C . Benjamin. C. and Carter. A. ( 1997) Regeneration - Some Legal and Practical Issues BURA. London
Hospers, G-J., (2014) Policy Responses to Urban Shrinkage: From Growth Thinking to Civic Engagement. European Planning Studies,22 (7): pp 1507-1523
Howitt, Richard, (2003) Scale. In: Agnew, John, Mitchell, Katheryne, Toal, Gerard (eds.), A Companion to Political Geography. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 138–157.
Levent, T. B., & Nijkamp, P. (2006). Quality of urban life: A taxonomic perspective. Journal of Studies in Regional Science, 36(2), 269-281.
Makower, Timothy. 2014. Thoughts on Urban Scale. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Massam, B. H. (2002). Quality of life: public planning and pri vate living. Progress in Planning, 58(3), 141–227. doi:10.1016/ s0305-9006(02)00023-5.
Ng ,M.K. (2005) Quality of life perceptions and directions for urban regeneration in Hong Kong Social Indicator Research 71: 441-465.
ODPM (2003) Creating sustainable communities: making it happen, Thames Gateway and the growth areas. ODPM, London.
Roberts, P. and Sykes, H. (eds.) (2000) Urban Regeneration: A Handbook, London: Sage.
Roberts, P., (2000) The evolution, definition and purpose of urban regeneration, in P. Roberts and H. Syke (eds.). Urban Regeneration, A Handbook. British Urban Regeneration Association, SAGE Publications ,London, 9–36.
Smith, Mark K., (2011) 'Neighborhoods and regeneration: Theory, practice, issues', the encyclopaedia of informal education.
Swyngedouw, E., (1997) Neither global nor local: ‘Glocalization’ and the politics of scale. In Cox, K. R. (ed.) Spaces of Globalization, pp 137-166. New York: Guildford Press.
Thompson J (2012) Sustainable urbanism. In GreenAge: Approaches and Perspectives towards Sustainability (Ergonul S, Kocabas A, Erbas E, Gundes S, Karaosman S and Eren O (eds)). Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, I ˙stanbul, pp. 47–65.
UN Habitat., (2010) State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011: Bridging the Urban Divide. Earthscan, James & James. Report of UN HABITAT.
UN-HABITAT., (2014). Streets as Tools for Urban Transformation in Slums, UN-HABITAT - Earthscan Publications Ltd.
UN-HABITAT.., (2013) UN-Habitat Global Activities Report; Our Presence and Partnerships, in:
Van Kamp, I., Leidelmeijer, K., Marsman, G., & de Hollander, A. (2003). Urban environmental quality and human well-being. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1-2), 5–18. doi: 10.1016/ s0169-2046(02)00232-3.
Van Ryzin, G., (2004) Expectations, performance, and citizen satisfaction with urban services. Wiley online library.