ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art & Architecture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art & Architecture, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran.



The present study endeavors to establish a comprehensive catalog of both positive and negative factors that impact the attachment to a specific place.
These factors were examined across diverse locations and geographic scales.
Aesthetic factors, positive memories, and emotions exert the most positive influence on the development of attachment to a place
The inefficiency of urban management, negative sentiments, and economic recession exert the most adverse impact on the formation of attachment to a place.

The intricate relationship between individuals and their surroundings is a dynamic interplay of positive and negative factors that either foster or hinder attachment to a place. This study delves into the multifaceted nature of place attachment in the coastal city of Bandar-Anzali, seeking to establish a nuanced understanding of the factors at play.
Theoretical Framework:
The concept of "place" extends beyond physical spaces to encompass the meaningful connections people form through experiences and ideas. While spatial identity, attachment, and dependence are frequently discussed, there lacks a comprehensive exploration of the myriad factors influencing them across diverse places and geographical scales. This research bridges this gap by creating an extensive list of factors affecting place attachment.
Employing a qualitative-quantitative combined approach, this study utilized thematic analysis to scrutinize interview texts. The sample size, determined by theoretical saturation, involved 89 interviews conducted through purposive sampling. Participants were asked to provide photos of places to which they felt attached, forming the basis for individual in-depth interviews. Four key questions explored the detailed description of the place, the reasons for attachment, motivations for returning or not, and factors strengthening or weakening attachment. Thematic analysis was independently conducted by researchers, resulting in 23 positive and 7 negative factors.
Results and Discussion:
The research identified 23 positive factors, including memories, similarity, positive feelings, security, balance of city and nature, connection with nature, sensory richness, and aesthetic considerations. Negative factors encompassed environmental damage, economic stagnation, inefficiency of urban management, loneliness, societal ignorance, neglect of cultural activities, and negative emotions. Recreational spaces, homes, neighborhoods, commercial places, object spaces, cultural-educational-administrative uses, and social places emerged as the most frequented locations. Aesthetic factors, memories, and positive emotions wielded the most positive influence, while inefficiency of urban management, negative emotions, and economic stagnation exerted the strongest negative impact on place attachment.
This research identifies key factors influencing attachment to a place. Aesthetic elements, memories, and positive emotions positively impact attachment, while urban mismanagement, negative emotions, and economic stagnation have a negative influence. Recreational spaces, homes, and neighborhoods are the most frequented places. Aesthetic considerations are particularly emphasized in images of recreational and commercial spaces. Social places highlight memories, positive emotions, aesthetics, and age as significant factors. The inefficiency of urban management is evident in images from urban neighborhoods, while symbols of Bandar Anzali city dominate urban space photos. Ambient spaces, such as multi-story houses and seaside paths, are the most common settings, with aesthetics holding the highest frequency in environmental spaces. Despite increasing interest in place attachment, the study reveals a need for further exploration of these factors. This research serves as a foundational step for future investigations in this area.


Main Subjects

Adams, J. D., Ibrahim, S., & Lim, M. (2010). Invoking the ontological realm of place: A dialogic response. Cultural studies and environmentalism: The confluence of ecojustice, place-based (science) education, and indigenous knowledge systems, 215-228.‏ DOI:10.1007/978-90-481-3929-3_17
Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., & Ercolani, A. P. (1999). Multidimensional perception of residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in the urban environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19(4), 331-352.‏
Canter, D. (1977). The psychology of place. Architectural Press.‏
Chen, C., Luo, W., Kang, N., Li, H., Yang, X., & Xia, Y. (2020). Serial mediation of environmental preference and place attachment in the relationship between perceived street walkability and mood of the elderly. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(13), 4620. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134620
Comstock, N., Dickinson, L. M., Marshall, J. A., Soobader, M. J., Turbin, M. S., Buchenau, M., & Litt, J. S. (2010). Neighborhood attachment and its correlates: Exploring neighborhood conditions, collective efficacy, and gardening. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 435-442.‏ DOI:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.05.001
Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global environmental change, 18(4), 598-606.‏
Dworkin, S. L. (2012). Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. Archives of sexual behavior, 41, 1319-1320.‏ DOI: 10.1007/s10508-012-0016-6
Green, K. J., Virata, M. L. A., Elgart, G. W., Stanley, J. R., & Parry, D. A. (1992). Comparative structural analysis of desmoplakin, bullous pemphigoid antigen and plectin: members of a new gene family involved in organization of intermediate filaments. International journal of biological macromolecules, 14(3), 145-153.‏ DOI: 10.1016/s0141-8130(05)80004-2
Hinojosa, L., Lambin, E. F., Mzoughi, N., & Napoléone, C. (2016). Place attachment as a factor of mountain farming permanence: A survey in the French Southern Alps. Ecological Economics, 130, 308-315.‏ DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.08.004
Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Van Der Veen, R., Huang, S., & Deesilatham, S. (2017). Mediating effects of place attachment and satisfaction on the relationship between tourists’ emotions and intention to recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 56(8), 1079-1093.
Jahangiri, A., Pakzad, J,.  Andalib, A. (2017). Phenomenography explain the meanings of the concept of place attachment extraction of video self-portrait.
Urban Management, 16(47), 277-300. [in Persian]
Lewicka, M. (2011). Place attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years?. Journal of environmental psychology, 31(3), 207-230.‏
Low, S. M., & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry. In Place attachment (pp. 1-12). Boston, MA: Springer US.‏
Monsef, M., Salaripour, A., Azimi, N., Abizadeh, S., & Zali, N. (2021). Measuring Place Attachment and the Effect of Place Scale on It in Different Urban Fabrics; Case Study: Rasht City. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development14(35), 299-310. doi: 10.22034/aaud.2020.217274.2098 [in Persian]
Nori, V., Mahdavi, A., Mohammad Niae Qaraee, F. (2022). Investigating Factors Affecting Location by Meta-Analysis. jgs 2022; 22 (65) :193-205 [in Persian]
Oswald, F., & Wahl, H. W. (2001). Housing in old age: Conceptual remarks and empirical data on place attachment. Bulletin on People-Environment Studies, 19, 8-12.‏
Perkins, D. D., & Long, D. A. (2002). Neighborhood sense of community and social capital: A multi-level analysis. In Psychological sense of community: Research, applications, and implications (pp. 291-318). Boston, MA: Springer US.‏ DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-0719-2_15
Ramyar, R., & Zarghami, E. (2017). Place attachment influences on social capital in common neighborhood environment (The case study: Nor residential complex in Tehran). Motaleate Shahri, 6(23), 39-52. [in Persian]
Raymond, C. M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010). The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community, and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 422-434.‏
Riley, R. B. (1992). Attachment to the ordinary landscape. In Place attachment (pp. 13-35). Boston, MA: Springer US.‏ DOI:10.1007/978-1-4684-8753-4_2
Rohe, W. M., & Stegman, M. A. (1994). The effects of homeownership: On the self-esteem, perceived control and life satisfaction of low-income people. Journal of the American Planning Association, 60(2), 173-184.‏ DOI:10.1080/01944369408975571
Sajjadzadeh, H. (2013). Role of Place Attachment in Making Identity for Urban Squares (A Case Study: Avicenna Square, Hamedan). The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar10(25), 69-78. [in Persian]
Salaripour, A., Adewale, B. A., Seif Reihani, Z., & Taleb Valialah, N. (2023). Investigating the relationships between quality of life, attachment and participation in small towns (case study: Sangar Town). Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 1-24.‏
Salaripour, A., daneshpour, S. A., & Safaye Karpour, M. (2021). Exploring the concept of place attachment in phenomenology and psychometrics; identifying the capacity of reflective interaction for theoretical development. Urban Planning Knowledge, 5(2), 1-18. doi: 10.22124/upk.2021.16159.1434  [in Persian]
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of environmental psychology, 30(1), 1-10.‏
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2017). The experienced psychological benefits of place attachment. Journal of environmental psychology, 51, 256-269.‏
Vasileiou, K., Barnett, J., Thorpe, S., & Young, T. (2018). Characterising and justifying sample size sufficiency in interview-based studies: systematic analysis of qualitative health research over a 15-year period. BMC medical research methodology, 18, 1-18.‏ DOI: 10.1186/s12874-018-0594-7
Zheng, C., Zhang, J., Guo, Y., Zhang, Y., & Qian, L. (2019). Disruption and reestablishment of place attachment after large-scale disasters: The role of perceived risk, negative emotions, and coping. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 40, 101273.‏
Zou, W., Wei, W., Ding, S., & Xue, J. (2022). The relationship between place attachment and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management Perspectives, 43, 100983.‏