ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Iran & Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Iran & Technical and Vocational University, Shariaty College, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Iran & Jundi-Shapur University of Technology Dezful, Dezful, Iran.

5 Department of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Iran & Islamic Azad University , Mashhad, Iran.




This study examines the relationship between privacy and interactions together.
The results show that the two criteria of border and territory, and interpersonal distances, have the greatest impact on social interactions and the criterion of audio-visual privacy has the least impact on social interactions compared to other components.
The results of Friedman ranking test showed that the indicators of physical flexibility, social homogeneity, interpersonal flexibility and spatial planning have the greatest impact on social interactions and the indicators of dimensions, proportions and hierarchy have the least impact on social interactions. Compared to other indicators.
 The study of the results in sheshsad Dastgah Residential Complex in Mashhad also shows that the designer's attention to the criteria and indicators affecting interactions with an approach to maintaining privacy in the design, has played a significant role in promoting interactions between users and residents of the complex. Which has been considered by the designer more than other criteria.

1. Introduction
In residential complexes, securing privacy, in its two main dimensions, namely family privacy and individual privacy, is prioritized as an effective component in ensuring the security and tranquility of residents. In fact, people’s attitudes toward privacy are part of their socialization process. For establishment of social relations, the privacy of individuals and groups in the public must be considered. It is essential to provide a balance between privacy and social interaction in the light of the cultural values of the community. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize the indicators of privacy effective on social interactions in a residential complex with 600 apartments in the city of Mashhad, Iran.
2. Theoretical Framework
Privacy is a process undergone for determining the boundaries between individuals, through which the individual or group monitors how they interact with others (Altman, 2003).
Altman (1975) considers personal space and territoriality as the main mechanisms used for achievement of privacy (Lang, 2009: 165).
Communication means the ability to transfer human information, thoughts, and behaviors from one person to another. Social interaction is a need that involves actions and emotions such as the sense of belonging and attachment, joining a group, loving, and being approved (Siramkaya, 2017).
The factors effective on the promotion of social interactions with the privacy approach include the following:

Physical characteristics,
Borders and territories (hierarchy, border clarity, and controllability in the separation of private and public areas),
Interpersonal distances,
Audio and visual privacy.

3. Methodology
The research method is descriptive-analytical, adopted besides documentary and library methods to identify the components of privacy affecting social interactions. The population examined in the present study consists of the residents of the Sheshsad Dastgah residential complex in Mashhad. The sample size is set to 322 people using Cochran’s formula. A questionnaire is used to collect the required information, and the data are analyzed using the SPSS and PLS software. Confirmatory factor analysis is applied to evaluate the research model and the validity of the questionnaire, along with the one-sample t-test to compare the means and the Friedman ranking test to rank the components.
4. Results and Discussion
The findings of the one-sample t-test of the population demonstrated that the mean values of all the components and subcomponents were higher than the obtained averages, and that all the specified components and indicators had relatively large impacts on social interactions (p < 0.05). The mean for the interpersonal distance component was 4.48, that for the boundaries and territories was 4.38, that for the physical characteristics was 4.12, and that for the visual-auditory space was 4.06. The results of the Friedman ranking test also indicated that the components of border and territory and interpersonal distance ranked highest in average, and therefore exhibited the greatest impacts on social interactions. Moreover, physical flexibility, social homogeneity, and interpersonal flexibility exhibited the highest average ranks among the subcomponents and the greatest impacts on social interactions.
5. Conclusion
As explained in the Methodology section, the SPSS 25 and PLS 3 software were used to analyze the data. The extracted average variance index (AVE) was used to verify the convergent validity. This index measures the amount of variance that a hidden variable gets from its markers, and its value ranges between 0 and 1, where higher values indicate greater convergent validity for the structure. The mean extracted variance, which measured the convergent validity, varied from a minimum of 0.53 for the boundary and a territory to a maximum of 0.70 for the physical characteristics. Since the mean values of extracted variance were close to or greater than 0.50, we could confirm the convergent validity (total validity of each component). Finally, the results demonstrated the validity and reliability of all the components and relevant questions. The effects of the four main criteria of privacy on social interactions in the examined residential complex could be analyzed using the Friedman test, ranking the criteria and the degrees of their impact on social interactions as follows. The findings on the ranking of the privacy criteria with respect to a chi-square value of 226.81 (df = 3) indicated significant relationships with social interactions (P < 0.05), from which it could be inferred that there was a significant difference between the four criteria of privacy affecting social interactions, and the extents and degrees of their impact on social interactions were also found to be different. The results of the Friedman ranking test demonstrated that the border and territory criterion ranked highest in average, and exhibited the greatest effect on social interactions in the residential complex. Shortly after that, there was the criterion of interpersonal distance, with an average rank of 2.97. According to the results, the two criteria of border and territory and individual intermediate distance had the greatest impacts on social interactions, and the criterion of audio-visual privacy affected them less than the others. There were significant differences between the fourteen indicators affecting socialization, the ranks and values of which were also different.
The results of the Friedman ranking test demonstrated that physical flexibility ranked highest in average, and was the most important indicator affecting social interactions. The social homogeneity, interpersonal flexibility, and spatial arena sub-components were ranked next, averaging 10.34, 10.20, and 8.82, respectively. According to the findings, the indicators of physical flexibility, social homogeneity, interpersonal flexibility, and spatial arena exhibited the greatest impacts on social interactions, and those of dimensions, proportions, and hierarchy affected them less than the others. The results indicated that the components of territoriality, such as interpersonal distance, physical characteristics, spatial domains, and audio-visual privacy, could be regarded as variables affecting social interactions in the Sheshsad Dastgah residential complex with an approach to maintenance of privacy.


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