ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture & Urban Planning, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.




The quality of perception of the residential environment as a tool for urban planners to promote and organize the environment promotes social interaction.
Using Bonito, Fornara and Bones in 2003, the effect of residential quality perception components on continuous social interaction was explained using double regression.
Among the indicators, the highest impact factor belongs to the maintenance and care of the environment, the attachment and urban streets respectively.
Modelling of perceived residential quality index effects on continuous social interactions have been confirmed and explains nearly half the variations of social interaction.
There is a significant relationship between social interaction and the quality of the perception of residential environment in the Bagh Shater.

1. Introduction
A tool for urban planners to improve and organize the environment of residence, the quality of its perception can provide the requirements for the formation and promotion of social interaction. The obligations of neighborhoods and neighborhood units include the provision of a tool to enhance social interaction and of a place for citizens to meet each other and the management and coordination of civic activities. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to investigate the effects of the indicators of residential environment quality perception on continuous social interaction.
2. Theoretical Framework
A factor that affects the quality of life involves the establishment of an appropriate level of collective and social interaction in living environments. The perceived quality of the residential environment is defined as the experience of life satisfaction and happiness. Likewise, the process of perceiving the urban environment is a determining factor in an individual’s image drawn and stored of his surrounding environment, and plays a fundamental role in the formation of his residential environment and his satisfaction with it. Environmental perception is a process where one chooses the required data according to his needs from the environment. Environmental quality is complex, and includes the mental perceptions, attitudes, and values of different groups and individuals. The quality of the environment can be defined as a fundamental part of the broader concept of quality of life.
The process of social interaction is the key to the perception of social processes. Environment information is achieved through perceptual processes that are evoked by mental images and guided by human needs. Finally, perception of these processes can help to measure the effects of residential environment perception on social interaction.
3. Methodology
To investigate the effect of the perceived residential quality indicator on continuous social interaction, this research used the descriptive-analytic procedure and the survey method. The population of the case study involved the inhabitants of the Bagh-Shater neighborhood in Tehran, Iran. The sample size was selected based on factors such as location and urban planning and architecture features. First, the indicators and components of perceived residential quality were assessed, and the qualifications of the perceived residential environment quality indicator were then studied using Bonaiuto, Fornara, and Bonnes’s (2003) questionnaire. Finally, the effect of the residential quality indicator on continuous social interaction was analyzed.
4. Results and Discussion
The results demonstrated that modeling the effects of the perceived residential quality indicator on continuous social interaction confirmed and explained nearly half of the variations therein. The indicators with the highest impact factors included the maintenance and care of the environment, attachment to the place, and urban streets, in that order. With respect to the main hypothesis of the study, there was a significant relationship between social interaction and the quality of perception of the residential environment in Bagh-Shater. This resulted in a positive, almost high correlation between the quality of environmental perception and social interaction, which increased as the quality of environmental perception rose. Based on the obtained results, the best policy to improve continuous social interaction was to enhance the capacity of local communities, thus enabling individuals to maintain the neighborhood spaces where they lived.
5. Conclusion
The results obtained on the effect of attachment to social interaction were in line with Fisher’s (1977). Accordingly, this could be associated to a large extent with the way in which an individual has established social relations with people and social institutions. If it can facilitate the flow of citizenship through man’s sense of attachment to the environment, urban space can serve to improve continuous social interaction and, consequently, the quality of the residential environment. The results of this study were in line with the views of Peter Kaltrop (1989) and the new principles and guidelines of urban planning, which have considered the creation of neighborhood units with high walkability as the main factor in establishment of social interactions and enhancement of environmental quality. Moreover, they were consistent with the promotion of social interactions according to the results of Torabi and Rafieian’s research, based on the significant impact of the sociability of space, which is a physical characteristic of space, indicating the effect of the environmental quality in promotion of social interactions. This alignment can also be accounted for by the structure of the network of passages and the general ossification of the neighborhood, which plays an important role in formation of appropriate spaces compatible with social interactions despite its old, distressed quality.


Main Subjects

Amérigo, M (2002). A psychological approach to the study of residential satisfaction. In: Aragones, J.I., Francescato, G, Gärling, T. (Eds.), Residential Environments. Choice Satisfaction and Behavior Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT, pp. 81–100.
Bahraini, seyed hossein, and Golnaz Tajbakhsh. (1999). The concept of Territory in urban Spaces and The role of urban design in the realization. Honar-ha-ye-Ziba, 6(0),18-31. [In Persian]
Barker, R. G (1968). “Ecological Psychology: concepts and methods for studying in the environment of human behavior”, Stanford, CA: standard university press.
Barkley, J. R., & Kruger, L. E. (2013). Place meanings as lived experience. In Place-Based Conservation (pp. 89-98). Springer Netherlands.
Bonaiuto, M. & Bonnes, M (2000).”Social-psychological approaches in environment – behavior studies”, In Wapner and Demik, Theorical perspective in environment Behavior research, 68- 78.
Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Bonnes, M., Ercolani, A.P (1999). Multidimensional perception of residential environ-ment quality and neighbourhood attachment in the urban environment. J. Environ. Psychol. 19, 331–352.
Bonaiuto, M., Bonnes, M (1996). Multiplace analysis of the urban, pp. 21–42.
Bonaiuto, Marino., Fornara, Ferdinando., Bonnes, Mirilia (2003). Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighbourhood attachment in urban environments: a confirmation study on the city of Rome. Landscape and Urban Planning 65. 41-52.
Bonnes, M., Bonaiuto, M., Aiello, A., Perugini, M., Ercolani, A.P (1997). A transactional perspective on residential satisfaction. In: Despres, C., Piché, D. (Eds.), Housing Surveys. Advances in Theory and Methods. Crad, Que., Canada, pp. 99–135.
Calthorpe, Peter (1989). The Pedestrian pocket, in Doug, Kelbaugh (ed.) Pedestrian Pocket Book.
Canter, D (1977). The Psychology of Place. Architectural Press, London, pp. 51–74.
Canter, D (1983). The purposive evaluation of places: a facet approach. Environ. 15, 659–698.
Cooper Marcus, C., Francis, C (1998). People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. John Willey & Sons, New York, pp. 45–68.
Danshpour, S.A. & Charkhchian. M. (2007). Fazaha- ye omumi va awamele moaser bar hayat- e jammei [Public space and the ingredients influenced the public living]. Journal of Bagh-e Nazar, 4 (7): 19-28. [In Persian]
Ejtehadi, Mostafa. (2004). The Range of Social Interaction. Human Sciences, NO. 41-42 , 1–12. [In Persian]
Fathi, Soroush. (2012). An analysis of social relations in sustainable urban space. Journal of Iranian Social Development Studies, No. 4, 64-67. [In Persian]
Fischer, C. S (1977). Networks and places: Social relations in the urban setting. New York: The Free Press.
Francescato, G (2002). Residential satisfaction research: the case for and against. In: Aragones, J.I., Francescato, G., Gärling, T. (Eds.), Residential Environments. Choice Satisfaction and Behavior. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT, pp. 15–34.
Gans ,H (1962). The Urban Villagers, New York: Free Press, pp. 12–28.
Gifford, Robert. (1998). Psychology of residential environments (translation: Vahid Ghobadian). Architecture and culture, No. 30, 71-92.
Haggerty, L.J (1982). Differential social contact in urban neighborhoods: environmental vs. sociodemographic explanations. Sociological Quarterly 23, 359–372.
Helly, D., Barsky, R. F., & Foxen, P (2003). Social Cohesion and Cultural Plurality. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 28(1), 19–42.
Homans, George Caspar (1961). Social behavior: its elementary forms. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 221- 368.
Huang, Shu. & Chun, L (2006).”A study of outdoor interactional spaces in high-rise housing”, journal of landscape & urban planning, 78, 193-204.
Johnston, R. J (1991). A Question of Place. Exploring the Practice of Human Geography. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kerlinger, Fred N., Elazar, J. p (1973). Multiple regression in behavioral research. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winton, Inc.
Khatibi, azam. (2017). Sociological explanation of neighborhood interactions and its effect on the sense of social vitality. Urban sociological studies. No.22, 107-134. [In Persian]
King, Samuel (2002). Sociology (Hamadani, Moshfegh., Trans).Tehran: Amirkabir Publishers.
Madanipour A. (2000). Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process, Translated by: Mortezaie F., Second Publish. Tehran: Processing and Urban Planning Company Publications. [In Persian]
Marans, Robert W (2003). Understanding environmental quality through quality of life, the 2001 DAS and objective indicators, Paper submitted for a special issue of the Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning.
Matlabi, Ghasem .(2001). Environmental Psychology, New knowledge in the service of architecture and urban design. Honar – ha – ye Ziba, No. 10, 52-67. [In Persian]
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M (1986). Sense of Community: A Definition and Theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23.
Mortazavi, shahnaz. (2001). Environmental psychology and its application. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press. [In Persian]
Naghizadeh, Mohammad. (2007). Perception of Beauty and City Identity (in the Light of Islamic Thought). Isfahan: Department of Urbanism and Architecture. [In Persian]
Pol, E (2002). “The theoretical background of the city identity-sustainability network”,
Porteous, J. Douglas., (1971). Design with People-the Quality of the Urban Environment, Environmental and Behavior, Published in Environment and behavior: eb; an interdisciplinary journal No 3, 155-178.
Rafeiyan, M., & Mavloudi, J. (2012). Approaches and Methods for Measuring the Quality of Urban Residential Environment. Azarakhsh, Tehran. [In Persian]
Rafieyan, M & Khodaie, Z. (2009). The indicators and criteria that affect citizen satisfaction with urban public spaces. Journal of Rahbord, 18 (53): 227-248. [In Persian]
Rapoport A. (2012). The Meaning of The Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication. Tehran: Processing and Urban Planning Company Publications.
RIVM (2002). the morbidity af asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the nether elands, workshop livability, P 13, rapport.
Salibi, Jacenth. (2011). An Analysis on the Contribution of Nonverbal Communication in Social Interaction. Institute for humanities and cultural studies, NO.2, 101-119. [In Persian]
Scotthanson C., Scotthanson K., (2005). The Cohousing Handbook: A Place for Community. (1st ed), Canada: New Society Publishers.
Seifolddini, Faranak. (2002). Dictionary of Urban and regional Planning. Shiraz: Shiraz University Press. [In Persian]
Sharepour, M. (2012). Urban Socialogy. Tehran: Samt Publication. [In Persian]
Statistical Center of Iran. (2011). The population and housing censuses.Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran press. [In Persian]
Tahmasebi, Arsalan & Behzadfar, Mustafa. (2013). Recognition and assessment of influential elements of social interaction: The scientific journal or NAZAR research center(Nrc) for Art. Architecture & Urbanism, vol.10, NO.25, 87-98. [In Persian]
Tarde, Gabriel de (2003). Die Gesetze der Nachahmung Translated byJadja Wolf. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, pp. 16-114.
Torabi, Mohammad. (2012). Neighborhood design based on the effect of physical characteristics of public open space in increasing interactions and social behavior. Master Thesis, Urban Design, Tarbiat Dabir Shahid Rajaei University. [In Persian]
Van Kamp, Irene and et al., (2003). urban environmental quality and human well-being toward a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts: a literature study, published by Landscape and Urban Planning, journal, 65, pp. 5-18.
Van poll, R (1997). The perceived quality of the urban residential environment: A multi attribute evaluation, Center for environmental studies (IVEM), University of Groningen, The Netherland.
Weber, Max (1972). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Tuebingen: JCB Mohr. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 13.
Wiese, Leopold von (1955). System der Allgemeinen Soziologie. Berlin: Gruyter.