ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.



- Various studies have demonstrated that several factors, including social, physical, and economic ones, affect the degree of socialization of an environment.
- Spatial organization in a residential complex has a significant role in the increase or decrease in its open space sociability.
- Open spaces with central and mixed layouts offer greater sociability than other patterns in residential complexes.
- Improper placement of various outdoor functions of a residential complex will reduce the sociability of the space.
- A new method involves measurement of the effect of the formation of open spaces in residential complexes using space syntax.
Different arrangements of blocks in a residential complex create different patterns of open space that enable the occurrence of different potentials in terms of spatial socialization. In this study, four different patterns of arrangement of residential blocks in the city of Shiraz, Iran were selected, including linear, complex, single-element, and complex central patterns. Their spatial structures were analyzed using the spatial syntax theory tools and field and documentary observations, and different aspects of socialization therein were compared.
 Theoretical foundations
1- Sociability of the architectural space
Socialization in a public space is based on people’s need for a sense of social belonging and interaction with each other, which can be realized in a supportive social space along with provision of physical comfort, territory claim, sense of ownership, and reception of justice in space.
2- Factors affecting socialization in the open spaces in a residential complex
Among the factors affecting socialization, physical factors (pertaining to spatial order) that affect the sociability of open spaces in residential complexes were studied and analyzed.
3- Physical components affecting socialization
3-1- Type of spatial organization
The concept of hierarchy denotes a set of features and phenomena that cause different spaces to be classified or ordered in a spatial configuration.
The issue of accessibility can be examined in two ways: physical access and visual access.
3-2- Locations of spaces and types of access to them
  One of the most important factors that affect the sociability of different spaces is their locations in the context of a site and the way in which people access them.
Transparency means the possibility of visual connection of different spaces with each other, and is an important factor in the provision of a feeling of peace and security in the environment.
3-3- Form, geometry, dimensions, and proportions of the space
  The morphological characteristics of space specify its appearance, and have a direct impact on people’s mood in interaction with space and their desire to attend it, as measured by the following two factors.
Spatial diversity
Spatial diversity is associated with a variety of concepts that are related both to the uses and to the formal diversity of spaces.
Percentages of open and closed spaces
It is very important to consider the proportionality of open and closed spaces and the visible skyline.
In this research, spatial organization was evaluated using the indicators of hierarchy and accessibility. The tools of connection, relative connection, and depth were used in the space syntax technique. The locations of the spaces and the types of access to them were evaluated using the two indicators of spatial location and transparency, the subject of spatial location was examined using the tools of communication, relative link, and depth, and the transparency indicator was assessed using the tools of vision control and obstruction.
Result and Discussion
- It was observed that the least spatial depth was formed in the central layout, leaving the open spaces in the center of the complex with greater sociability.
- Where the playing space was located in the middle of the entrance area of a mixed complex, it occupied the largest viewing area, thereby increasing sociability.
- Mixed and central spaces exhibited the highest degree of interconnection, minimum separation, and maximum accessibility of the open space due to the type of arrangement of their blocks.
- Central and mixed spaces provided greater vision control and transparency despite their great spatial diversity and the possibility of mutual view of the spaces.
- In the examination of the indicator of spatial diversity, as observed, the presence of a skyline with a wider field of view and a sense of open space increased the sociability of the public space.
- Improper placement of spaces in the site of a residential complex will leave them less appealing and desirable to the community.
- If a space is relatively deep in terms of access, it will hardly be welcomed.
- Variety in the arrangement of blocks can increase sociability in the open air, because it increases the variety of space on the plan.
- An open space will enjoy greater sociability if it meets everyone’s needs. Children and families should be free to respond to their basic needs in these spaces.
- By establishing a balance between the percentages of open and closed spaces, we can help increase sociability. A visible skyline and consideration of the height of the blocks increase a person’s motivation to be outdoors.
- Greater sociability is required to create less visual depth and more communication and interconnectedness.
The following suggestions are made about the design of a complex:
- tendency to design residential complexes of the mixed and central types
- inclusion of playing spaces that are more connected and more frequently used
- development of spaces suitable for sitting with a focus on provision of the right shade or the possibility of sunbathing and applying maximum transparency and accessibility
- creation of a playing space in a lower hierarchy with the possibility of providing maximum transparency and communication
- creation and development of semi-open common spaces on the floors of a residential complex, such as social balconies, and consideration of the availability of public, private, and semipublic spaces
- recognition that residents of a complex who have better observed the indicators of physical quality will find their living environment more favorable in the same conditions of the neighborhood.
This article is taken from the first author's doctoral dissertation entitled "Compilation of Shiraz apartment housing schemas with emphasis on indicators of optimal physical quality" which is being conducted at the Islamic Azad University of Shiraz.


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