ISSN: 2717-4417

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management & Accounting, Allameh Tabataba`i University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.



- The tourism development model is necessary due to the rapid growth of this industry, increasing income and employment in the countries of the world.
- As actors in tourism activities, local stakeholders play the greatest role in the sustainable development of cultural tourism.
- The eight common components of discussion include urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, tourism economics, government management, and advertising.
Tourism is one of the largest, fastest industries in the world, which causes an increase in income, employment, and investment in many countries. As a cultural event, tourism development causes effective interactions between tourists and destinations to let them acknowledge and respect each other more. In fact, it provides an apportunity for establishment of more effective communications between nations and people. Cultural tourism is a topic addressed in the tourism industry, and there is a lot to do in that regard in a country like Iran, which is the origin of civilization and written history. Kurdistan Province is located in the west of Iran. Given its diverse cultural attractions, it should attract more cultural tourists through careful planning in the field of cultural tourism, and profit can be made by local people in return as cultural products are sold to tourists and promoted. This provides a good opportunity to take advantage of the attractions of this province, especially the cultural attractions. The aim of this research was to consider a model for development of cultural tourism in Kurdistan Province.
Theoretical Framework
The outbreak of the Coronavirus has almost devastated the tourism industry, and the images of empty streets and entertainment venues, blackouts, and closed shops in cities around the world are very strange and sometimes frightening. Of course, the statistics on the tourism industry in different countries are alternating. According to a global estimate, approximately three million jobs in the tourism and travel sectors have been eliminated or are expected to be lost soon. International travel revenues have fallen by more than $300 billion, and hotel occupancy has fallen sharply to about 25 percent. Experts and specialists in the field of tourism have different opinions about the future of travel and tourism, but the Coronavirus will definitely change the way of thinking, tourists’ behavior , and the amount of people’s travel around the world. However, the tourism industry is moving towards purposeful holidays in today’s world, and a new form of tourism along with cultural tourism involves travel that combines relaxation and satisfaction of mental needs . Cultural tourism can have particular effects in any region, such as rediscovery and celebration of local residents’ lost cultural privileges, recognition and development of regional awareness in spatial dimensions and cultural identity, promotion of a good sense of belonging to a culture, economic infrastructure development, in the long run, and enhancement of employment in an economy undergoing recession. The present developmental applied study aimed to describe the conditions or phenomena under study, and such a plan can be implemented only to help understand the existing conditions better or to assist the decision-making process.
The present study is considered as applied, as it is possible to apply the results in the cultural tourist attraction program, and a mixed research method (qualitative and quantitative) was used therein. First, the researcher identified the factors affecting the development of cultural tourism in Kurdistan Province using the method of semi-structured interviews through opinion polls provided to professors and managers and research information obtained by questionnaires in the field of cultural tourism based on earlier research. The theoretical framework and library studies were used to examine the results and identify the factors effective in the field of cultural tourism. The population in both theoretical and practical sections included A) faculty members of universities, including professors of tourism management, in Kurdistan Province and professors of universities in neighboring provinces with expertise in the field and at least one research article in the field of cultural tourism with a scientific rank (scientific-research, scientific-development, ISI, and ISC), B) tourism managers, marketing experts, and specialsts in cultural heritage, handicrafts, and tourism in the cities of Kurdistan Province, C) managers of tourism agencies in Kurdistan Province, and d) cultural tourists.
Results and Discussion
Using common concepts, categories were extracted which included eight components: urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, tourism economy, government management, and advertising. The research results indicated the favorable conditions of urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, and tourism economy. However, government management and promotion in Kurdistan Province was not in favorable conditions. The results were examined through verification of eight hypotheses appropriate to the eight components.
From the final results of the analysis of available data and information, it can be inferred that Kurdistan Province exhibits a high capability (potentially) of attracting tourists and developing cultural tourism. However, a large part of the province has been abandoned and ignored due to improper advertising and provision of information, lack of infrastructural facilities, physically inadequate access routes, and relevant organizations’ insufficient supervision and planning to introduce the unique features and privileges of museums. This includes the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, which has failed to draw visitors’ attention to this tourist destination in line with expectations. Given the high potentials of Kurdistan Province in the field of cultural tourism development, the present study suggested that the province should be turned into a cultural province. Finally, it should be acknowledged that cultural tourism involves tourists’ behavior and their interaction with local residents. We must promote cultural development and increase respect for the cultures of other countries among the citizens of Kurdistan. Residents can play an important role in the formation of tourists’ perception of the destination.


Main Subjects

Ahmadi, M. (2018), Analysis of effective factors on the development of cultural tourism and its effects on the economic sustainability of rural areas of Zanjan province, Quarterly Journal of Regional Planning, 8 (29), 92-79. [in Persian]
Almasi, R (2015), The importance and role of cultural tourism in Iran, the second national conference on tourism, geography and clean environment, Hamedan, Permanent Secretariat of the conference, . [in Persian]
Andersen, V., Prentice, R., & Guerin, S. (1997). Imagery of Denmark among visitors to Danish fine arts exhibitions in Scotland. Tourism Management, 18(7), 453-464.‏
Creswell, J. W (2005), Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, & Evaluating Quantitative & Qualitative Research (2nd edition).
Danaeifard, H. (2005), Theorizing Using Inductive Approach: The Strategy of Conceptualizing Fundamental Theory, Volume 12, Number 11, 70-57. [in Persian]
Delavar, A. (2005), Research Method in Psychology and Educational Sciences, Tehran: Editing Publishing. [in Persian]
Grunewald, Rodrigo de Azeredo (2002), Tourism & Cultural Revival, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 29, No. 4
Iman, M,. Mohammadian, M. (2008), Methodology of Fundamental Theory, Journal of Methodology of Humanities, (56) 14, 54-31. [in Persian]
Jamali Nejad, M. Karimi, J (2011), Cultural Tourism of Kurdistan Province and its Role in the Development of Tourism Industry, The First Conference on Cultural Effects of Kurdistan Province, Sanandaj, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, .html. [in Persian]
Jan Parvar, M.; Salehabadi, R., Mehdi, M. (2019), Strategic cultural tourism to strengthen the national identity of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Journal of Applied Studies in Social Sciences and Sociology, 2 (5), 13-28.[in Persian]
Jarkko Saarinen, Naomi Moswete, Masego J. Monare (2014), Cultural Tourism: New Opportunities for diversifying the tourism industry in Botswana, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, Volume 26, Issue 26, 18-7.
Karroubi, M. (2005), The role of folklore (popular culture in the development of tourism in Iran), Iranian Journal of Tourism Studies, No. 1. [in Persian]
Kazemizad, Sh; Vegetables, b; Mirbahai, M., Karimi, A. (2010), The role of tourism in the cultural convergence of OIC member countries, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Geographers of the Islamic World, Sistan and Baluchestan University. [in Persian]
MacCallum, R. C., Brown, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M (1996), Power analysis & determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 149-130.
María, Cristina Otero Gómez, Wilson Giraldo Pérez (2015), Cultural Tourism in Villavicencio Colombia, Tourism in Latin America, 125-105.
Mostafazadeh, S.; Habibi, F., Mohammadi, A. (2019), Estimating the willingness of tourists to pay and the factors affecting it Case study: Zaribar Lake, Marivan, Quarterly Journal of Urban Studies, No. 33, 15-26. [in Persian]
Movahed, A., Kohzadi, S. (2010), Analysis of Factors Affecting Tourism Development in Kurdistan Province Using the SWOT Model, Journal of Urban Research and Planning, First Year, Second Issue, 102-85. [in Persian]
Pourafkari, B (2016), A Comparative Study of Cultural Tourism Development in Iran and Turkey, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Isfahan. [in Persian]
Rezvani, A. (2006), Geography and Tourism Industry, Tehran, Payame Noor, 217. [in Persian]
Richards, Greg & Munster, William (2010), Cultural Tourism Research Method, Wallingford: UK, cab international,
Richards, Greg (2000), tourism & the world of culture & heritage, tourism Recreation research, 25.
Richards, Greg (2019), Cultural tourism: A review of recent research & trends, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 36, 21-12.
Sabagh kermani, m., & amirian, s. (2000). study of economic effects of tourism in i.r. Iran by using the input-output analysis. Iranian journal of trade studies (its), 4(16), 57-84. [in Persian]
Sarmad, Z, Bazargan, A. Hejazi, A. (2014), Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences, 27th Edition, Nazar Agha. [in Persian]
Skift Research. (2020). Skift Research E-Book: The New Wave of Venture Capital and Startups in Travel, Available at:, Access on: 07.01.2020.
Strauss, A., Corbin, J. (2006), Principles of Qualitative Research Methodology (translated by Buick Mohammadi), Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies.
Taqvaee, M. Safarabadi, A. (2017), Development of Cultural Tourism with Emphasis on Historical Attractions (Case Study: Historical Attractions of Isfahan), Quarterly Journal of Welfare Planning and Social Development, 4 (12), 13-1. [in Persian]
Williams, D. (2001), Sustainability & public access to nature: contesting the right to roam. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9.
Xiao, H. & Li, L. (2004), Villagers’ perceptions of traditions: some observations on the development of rural cultural tourism in China. Tourism Recreation Research 29.
Zare Ashkezari, M; Saghaei, M; Mousavi, M. & R. Mokhtari Malekabadi (2016), Effective factors on development of cultural tourism with the approach to attracting foreign tourists in central Iran؛ case study: Yazd city, Volume 5, Issue 17, 208-198. [in Persian]
Zeppel, H. & Hall, c. m (2018), arts & heritage tourism, Weiler, B.& Hall, c. m. special interest tourism, London: Belhaven press: 65-47.