هر ساله بلایای طبیعی و غیر طبیعی در سراسر جهان مرگ و میر، آسیب های جسمی و بیماری های زیادی را به بار می آورند به طوری که از 70 نوع بلایای طبیعی ثبت شده در جهان، 13 نوع آن در کشور ما به ثبت رسیده است. لذا این تحقیق با هدف سنجش و مدل سازی آسیب پذیری در بافت شطرنجی و نیمه شطرنجی شهر سلماس بر اساس شاخص های پدافند غیر عامل انجام گرفته است. نوع تحقیق حاضر کاربردی بوده و روش انجام کار توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد و گردآوری اطلاعات نیز از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی و صورت گرفته است. برای نیل به هدف تحقیق، تعداد 14 شاخص بر اساس نظرات نخبگان انتخاب شده و در نرم افزار GIS لایه های اطلاعاتی برای آن ها تشکیل شده است. برای محاسبه وزن شاخص ها از روش تصمیم گیری چند معیاره BWM استفاده شده و نتایج آن در نرم افزار GAMS مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. سرانجام، وزن بدست آمده از روش BWM در شاخص های 14 گانه استاندارد شده با توابع فازی و منطق بولین ضرب شده و با هم ترکیب شده است. نتایج بیانگر آن است در بافت شطرنجی 4866 قطعه در پهنه آسیب پذیری خیلی کم، 2719 قطعه آسیب پذیری کم، 2862 قطعه آسیب پذیری متوسط، 3435 قطعه آسیب پذیری زیاد و 430 قطعه در پهنه آسیب پذیری خیلی زیاد واقع شده است. در بافت نیمه شطرنجی 611 قطعه در پهنه آسیب پذیری خیلی کم، 2598 قطعه آسیب پذیری کم، 3669 قطعه آسیب پذیری متوسط، 5350 قطعه آسیب پذیری زیاد و 3057 قطعه در پهنه آسیب پذیری خیلی زیاد قرار دارد. به طور کلی می توان گفت میزان آسیب پذیری در بافت شطرنجی نسبت به بافت نیمه شطرنجی کمتر می باشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative Studying the Vulnerability of Checkered and Semi- Checkered Texture of Salmas City against Earthquake from the Perspective of Passive Defense
The present age is the age of urban vulnerability, because as urban life becomes more complex, cities in various dimensions face natural hazards and technological crises on the one hand, and socio-security crises on the other. Every year, natural and unnatural disasters around the world cause many deaths, physical injuries and diseases. Out of 70 types of natural disasters registered in the world, 13 types have been registered in our country. The issue of passive defense today is not defined as a mere research topic but as a vital requirement for governing any country, both in times of crisis and in times of non-crisis, in order to preserve its material and spiritual values. Due to its special geographical and political position, the land of Iran has always witnessed many natural and unnatural disasters (wars, etc.) throughout history and has suffered a lot of financial and human losses. More than 90% of the country's cities are vulnerable to 5.5 magnitude earthquakes. According to official statistics for the past 25 years, more than 6% of the country's casualties have been caused by earthquakes. Therefore, the theoretical and practical position of defense and defense against the crisis in this area is very important. Given these issues, the application of passive defense and attention to its principles in urban planning can greatly reduce the destructive effects of such crises. Meanwhile, the checkered city of Salmas with a population of 91239 people as a middle city in the space organization, in the "relative earthquake risk zoning in Iran" from the study of the National Physical Plan of Iran, is located in a region with high relative risk. Due to its location on a fault, the history of the devastating 7.2 magnitude earthquake in 1309, this city has made it important to observe the principles of passive defense in urban planning. Accordingly, this study was conducted with the aim of modeling the vulnerability of checkered and semi-checkered texture of Salmas city against earthquakes from the perspective of passive defense.
This research is an applied research according to its purpose and has an analytical nature according to the method of work. Data collection was done through library studies, existing articles, field studies and census information of the Statistics Center of Iran in 2016. Thus, after studying the documents and resources related to passive defense, effective vulnerability indicators were extracted from the perspective of passive defense, and then according to the availability of effective indicators in determining vulnerability for the city of Salmas, 14 indicators Selected from various influential factors to achieve the research output. These indicators include building density, area of plots, distance from fault, population density, quality of buildings, age of buildings, structure of buildings, facade of buildings, distance from rescue centers, distance from open urban spaces, distance from hazardous centers, texture area Worn is the distance from the main thoroughfares and the pattern of the urban fabric. Considering that each of the effective indicators in determining the vulnerability of the coefficient has a different importance, so in this article, the opinions of the elites have been used to determine the weight (coefficient of importance) of the indicators. To weight the indicators according to the BWM method, 10 questionnaires whose content is based on a pairwise comparison of indicators, which is based on the preference of the best index over other indicators and also the preference of other indicators over the worst indicator. In the next step, the data of the questionnaires were entered into GAMS software and calculated and analyzed. The weights calculated with the value of λε obtained for 10 questionnaires were 0.097, which due to its proximity to the number zero indicates the stability and consistency of the calculated weights. In order to perform spatial analysis, the information layers of the indicators are first digitized and edited in the GIS software, and by converting the information layers into rasters and Standardize them with Large and Small Fuzzy functions and Boolean logic, the significance coefficient calculated by the BWM method is multiplied in each of the indicators. Using the weighted sum combination of indicators to measure the vulnerability, the checkered and semi-checkered texture of Salmas city has been dealt with separately.
Calculating the weight of the indicators in GAMS software shows that the highest weight is related to the urban texture pattern index with 0.164 and the lowest weight is related to the building facade index with a significance coefficient of 0.030. The average value of λε obtained for 10 questionnaires was 0.097, which due to its proximity to zero indicates the stability and consistency of the calculated weights. The results of combining the indicators in the checkered texture of Salmas city show that in the checkered texture, there are 4866 parcels in very low vulnerability zone, 2719 parcels in low vulnerability, 2862 parcels in medium vulnerability, 3435 parcels in high vulnerability and 430 parcels in very high vulnerability zone. In the semi-checkered texture, 611 parcels are in very low vulnerability zone, 2598 parcels are in low vulnerability zone, 3669 parcels are in medium vulnerability zone, 5350 parcels are in high vulnerability zone and 3057 parcels are in very high vulnerability zone.
In general, it can be said that the level of vulnerability in checkered texture is less than semi-checkered texture.