شهرسازی مدرن معلول عقلانیت ابزاری و نگاه سودمدار اقتصادی است که زمین شهری را به عنوان کالای ارزشمند اقتصادی در چرخه عرضه و تقاضا وارد می کند و از این رهگذر است که برنامه ریزی شهریِ کالبُدی جایگزین برنامه ریزی شهری اجتماعی می شود. توسعة فضایی کلانشهر تبریز همانند اکثر شهرهای بزرگ ایران مسبوق به همین بنیاد معرفت شناختی و هستی شناختی مدرنیستی است. اساسی ترین تراژدی شهرسازی مدرن تخریب و نوسازی واحدهای همسایگی، محلات تاریخی و نیز جابجایی جمعیتها و گروههای انسانی است. ما این پدیده را به وضوح از رهگذر پروژه های وسیع نوسازی کالبدی که در محدودة محلات تاریخی کلانشهر تبریز اجرا شده است مشاهده کردیم. بنابرابن در چارچوب نظریه متاخر سرمایه اجتماعی سعی شده است کیفیت روابط اجتماعی گروههای اجتماعی جابجا شده را در محدودة محلات جدید و حومه ای بررسی کنیم. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که اغلب گروههای جمعیتی با افزایش تراکم و نوسازی کالبدی در محلاتی نظیر راسته کوچه، دارایی، بازار، امین و ... عمدتاً به سمت محلات جدید نظیر منظریه، ولیعصر، رشدیه، میرداماد و زعفرانیه حرکت کرده اند. در عین حال سرمایة اجتماعی محلات مدرن بسیار پایین تر از محلات قدیمی است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Modern city development tragedy: analysis of physical renovation effects on the destruction of the local community: The case of study Tabriz
Modernization is the basic theme of the modernity project and is the reason of enlightenment in the different fields of thought, art and aesthetics. Two primary processes of the modernity project were the beginning of modern urban planning: ‘destructive creativity’ and ‘creative destruction’. Perhaps the best literary example of physical renovation and modern urban planning is Goethe’s Faust and it is the best tragedy of growth and development. Physical quality of a city and socio- cultural relations have mutual correlation with each other. Modern urban planning caused by instrumental rationality and economic profit – oriented view enters the city land as a valued commodity in supply and demand circles. Thus, physical urban planning is replaced with social urban planning. Spatial development of Tabriz like most other great cities of Iran is rooted in modernist epistemology and ontology. The most basic tragedy of modern urban planning is the destruction and renovation of neighborhoods and historical districts, and also the replacement of population and human groups. Modern urban planning is a type of spatial action and rooted in socio- economic changes which from the 16th century has attempted to replace liberation rationality with traditional myths. Therefore, if we define urban planning as an action similar to other social fields it involves two types of action. Max Weber in his analysis of social actions discusses two types of action named instrumental rational action and value rational action. Social capital involves the dimensions of social structure that facilitate public action and supply some resources to people to achieve their goals. Three dimensions of socio- spatial dialectic is : 1- social relations formed by space; 2- social relations limited by space; and 3- social relations mediated by space. “Friction of distance” causes diverse social experiences involving routine life patterns. Physical renovation which occurs in the center of a metropolis through instrumental spatial action causes the reinforcement of physical capital of central quarters. A tragic dimension of physical renovation is produced through dialectical logic. In other words, although with widening the streets and modernization of quarters, widespread public spaces have been created for greater human interaction, by damaging previous Gothic and Baroque spaces, using modern urban planning designs, replacing of communities and neighbors has led toa reduction in neighborly relations. The research hypotheses are as follows: 1- there are meaningful correlations between physical renovation and destruction of communities in central districts of Tabriz, 2- connecting social capital in central districts of Tabriz is greater than in more modern districts. 3- the interconnectedness of social capital in central districts of Tabriz is greater than in modern districts. The research method used was descriptive – analytical. Physical renovation is the independent variable and the quality of social capital is the dependent one. This phenomenon was clearly observed to have occurred through extensive physical renovation projects in the historical districts of Tabriz. Therefore, on the basis of social capital theory, a survey was conducted regarding social relations quality of replaced social groups in new districts and suburban areas. The conclusion shows that with rising density and physical renovation in districts like Raste Kuche, Darayi, Bazaar, and Amin most population groups relocated to new districts such as Manzariyeh, Valiasr, Roshdiye, Mirdamad and Zafaraniye. Physical renovation has caused the replacement of the central district's values with modern values. In other words, widening of streets and boulevards has in fact caused the reverse action of limiting and destroying of place based and historical social capital and communities. Assessment of community destruction, bridging and bonding social capital in old and central districts of Tabriz exposed to significant physical renovation has resulted in geographical and spatial movement from the old districts to new ones as well as lesser social capital in new modern districts compared to older ones.