نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

توسعه شهری با رویکرد توسعه محله‌های درونی، سعی در بازگرداندن حیات شهری به بافت‌های رو به زوال در شهرها دارد. به منظور تسهیل این روند، برنامه‌ریزی و اجرای پروژه‌های محرک توسعه به عنوان یکی از سیاست‌های به کار گرفته شده در جهت بازآفرینی محله‌های شهری و فراهم کردن بسترهای لازم برای حضور ساکنان و توجه به ابعاد مختلف توسعه، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در فرایند بازآفرینی شهری، از مرحله تشخیص مسئله تا اجرای پروژه‌ها و بازنگری برنامه، پی­ریزی و تقویت تصمیم­سازی­ها از طریق ارزیابی امکان‌پذیر می‌شود. در این راستا، مقاله حاضر با تدوین شاخص­های تحرک و توسعه، تلاش کرده است تا به یک ساختار مناسب و قابل تعمیم برای ارزیابی پس از اجرای پروژه­های محرک توسعه در سطح محله دست یافته و اثرات یک نمونه از این پروژه‌ها را در محله گودال مصلی در بافت تاریخی شهر یزد مورد ارزیابی قرار دهد. پس از استخراج شاخص‌های ارزیابی در ارتباط با بازآفرینی محله‌های شهری و پروژه­های محرک توسعه از متون معتبر جهانی و تجارب عملی، تحلیل داده­های ثانویه مربوط به بلوک‌های شهری محله گودال مصلی در محیط نرم­افزار SPSS21 انجام شده و نتایج نهایی به دست آمده است. به عنوان روش تحقیق در این مقاله، از روش Regression Analysis برای تحلیل اثرات هر شاخص بر هر عامل و از ماتریس ارزیابی اثرات لئوپولد _ مخدوم برای ارزیابی پس از اجرای پروژه استفاده شده است. یافته­ها نشان می­دهد پروژه دانشکده هنر و معماری دانشگاه یزد به طور متوسط و به ترتیب بر بعد کالبدی، سپس بر بعد سکونتی و نهایتاً بر بعد فعالیتی در سطح محله گودال مصلی اثرات محسوس داشته و این پروژه با ارائه گزینه‌های اصلاحی به عنوان یک محرک توسعه با اثرات مثبت، قابل تأیید است. همچنین نتایج حاکی از بیشترین ارتباط میان شاخص میزان بومیت با شأن سکونتی بافت، شاخص میزان دسترسی به خدمات با وضعیت محیط مسکونی، شاخص‌های میزان جمعیت در سن فعالیت و درصد فعالیت کاربری‌های تجاری با وضعیت فعالیتی و اقتصادی محله بوده و درصد ابنیه نوساز، میزان تراکم جمعیت، میزان اداری بودن و پایداری ابنیه بر تحرک و توسعه کالبدی محله مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A post-implementation assessment of flagship projects in the urban neighborhoods: Case study, of Godal- Mosalla neighborhood in Yazd, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mehdi Azizi 1
  • Bahare Bahra 2

1 , School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 , School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

 
Highlights
In the process of urban regeneration, the establishment and strengthening of decision-making should be through evaluation.
The article has tried to achieve a generalizable structure for evaluation after the implementation of flagship development at neighborhood scale.
In flagship development at the scale of neighborhood, more important notice should be given to the residential parameter.
 
Introduction. Urban development through development of internal neighborhoods is an attempt to restore urban life to the deteriorated areas of cities. In order to facilitate this process, planning and implementation of flagship development has been considered as one of the policies used for urban neighborhood regeneration and provision of the requirements for the residents’ presence and concern for different dimensions of development.Regeneration of the historical and deteriorated areas in cities has been addressed in the recent literature on urban planning worldwide. Inefficiency is a major problem in historical and deteriorated urban areas, where automatic update and change is no longer possible.As in many other countries, the current process of extension of deteriorated urban areas in Iran indicates that problems will be complicated if no precautionary measures are taken, and no appropriate policies or operating plans are adopted.Implementation of flagship development has been considered as a solution.A main purpose of flagship development is to help achieve urban regeneration goals, an approach taken up as a comprehensive strategy for making positive changes in a place with signs of deterioration. This strategy is aimed at quality improvement, with integrated economic, social, and physical goals. Flagship development is applied in order to improve a place that is in the process of decaying and deteriorating, and its advocatesare agreed that an urban area will not achieve regeneration without such projects, since it causes a series of reactions that will lead to regeneration of the urban fabric. On the other hand, it is not the case that we hope to achieve development over a vast urban area simply by relying on this project, as many projects all around the world have failed to achieve their main purpose, i.e. to regenerate a decaying fabric.
Theoretical Framework. Evaluation is possible throughout the urban regeneration process, from the stage of problem identification to the implementation of projects and the review of the decision-making process. Through presentation of mobility and development indicators, therefore, the present study has developed into an appropriate, generalizable structure for assessment of the impact of flagship development and catalyst projects after implementation at the neighborhood scale. It evaluates the effects of an example of these projects in the Gowdal Mosalla neighborhood in the historical city of Yazd, Iran. The theoretical framework of the research involves three main parameters based on the overall literature and practical experience: the physical parameter, the residential parameter, and the activity parameter. The activity parameter includes the indicators of dependency burden, percentage of active population, percentage of commercial use, active commercial use, employment rate, and men’s rate of immigration. The physical parameter includes the indicators of access to infrastructure, access to parking space, population density, residential renovation, percentage of non-arid land, sustainable buildings, new buildings, percentage of administrative use. The residential parameter includes the indicators of percentage of indigenous population, percentage of tenancy, active housing, single-family housing, home access to primary schools, access to local parks, access to sports venues, youth population, number of students, level of education, and coefficient of residence.
Methodology. A research method based on the quantitative methodology, regression analysis was used in this study to analyze the effects of each indicator on each factor, and the matrix of impact assessment, known as Leopold Matrix, was used for evaluation after the implementation of the flagship development and the neighborhood regeneration. The final results were obtained after 25 evaluation indicators pertaining to urban regeneration and flagship development were extracted from the established overall literature and practical experience, and secondary data on 93 urban blocks of the Gowdal Mosalla neighborhood were analyzed in SPSS 21.
Results and Discussion. The research findings demonstrate that the project performed at the Faculty of Arts and Architecture of Yazd has the greatest effects on the physical parameter, followed by the residential parameter and, eventually, the activity parameter at the scale of the Gowdal Mosalla neighborhood, and it can be approved as a positive flagship development through provision of modification options. The results indicate the closest relationships between the indicator of native quality and the residential status of the fabric, between the indicator of access to services and the status of the residential environment, and between the indicators of population at the age of activity and percentage of commercial land use and the activity and economic status of the neighborhood. Population density, administrative level, and the stability of buildings affect the mobility and physical development of the neighborhood.
Conclusion. In future planning, it is necessary to consider indicators that focus on improvement of the residential parameter, especially through consolidation of the existing indigenous population and absorption of the young population. Moreover, the extracted theoretical framework will be effective for planning flagship developments and evaluating them in future practice and research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flagship development
  • Urban regeneration
  • Impact assessment
  • Leopold Matrix
  • Regression analysis
  • Gowdal Mosalla neighborhood
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