نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته‌ کارشناسی ارشد، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

منظر شهری پدیده‌ای پیچیده از جنبه‌ عینی و ادراکی در محیط است که از برهم‌کنش لایه‌‌های متکثر فرم، عملکرد و معنا در تعامل با ذهن انسان ایجاد می‌شود و جایگاه مهمی در ارتقای قابلیت‌های بصری و ادراکی فضاهای شهری دارد. اگرچه صرف داشتن نگاه و قرائت منظرین از شهر پاسخ­گوی مسائل پیچیده شهری نخواهد بود، ولی توجه به منظر به عنوان ابزار پایه و لازم (و نه کافی) برای قرائت متن شهر در راستای پاسخ‌گویی به بخشی از مسائل شهری و حقوق شهروندی ضرورت دارد. هدف نوشتار حاضر، ارزیابی کیفیت‌های بصری و فضایی میدان امام­خمینی شهر قم براساس دیدگاه متخصصان است. از این‌ رو پرسش اصلی تحقیق به این شرح است: براساس معیارها و زیر معیارهای برآمده از تکنیک تحلیل منظر سایمون بل، اولویت مداخله در منظر هر یک از اضلاع چهارگانه میدان امام­خمینی شهر قم چگونه­است؟ در راستای رسیدن به این هدف، روش تحقیق توصیفی_تحلیلی به کار گرفته شده و برای ارزیابی وضع موجود، داده‌های مورد نیاز بر مبنای چارچوب طرح شده در"تکنیک تحلیل منظر سایمون بل" با استفاده از ابزارهای مشاهده، عکس‌برداری و تکنیک‌های SWOT وAHP، گردآوری و تحلیل شده­اند. به منظور وزن‌دهی معیارها و زیرمعیارهای مطرح در این تکنیک از میانگین نظرات کارشناسی سی‌ تن از متخصصان شهری در قالب پرسشنامه و ماتریس‌های ارزیابی در ساختار سلسله مراتبیAHP، استفاده شده­است. نرخ ناسازگاری در قضاوت‌های متخصصان کمتر از 0.1 بوده که نشانگر سازگاری و اعتبار منطقی نظرات است. براساس یافته‌های تحقیق در تحلیل منظر میدان امام خمینی بر مبنای چارچوب منتخب، الگوی سازمان‌دهی فضایی با43.9درصد، الگوی سازمان‌دهی ساختاری با 38.3درصد و الگوی سازماندهی انتظام‌بخشی 17.8درصدامتیاز را به خود اختصاص داده­اند. در مجموع، ارزیابی الگوهای سازمان‌دهی منظر در ضلع شرقی با بالاترین مقدار 44.4درصد و سپس به ترتیب در ضلع شمالی 29.4درصد، ضلع غربی 16.4درصد و در ضلع جنوبی 9.8درصداز مجموع 100را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Urban Squares Scape Applying "Simon Bell Landscape Analysis Technique" (Case Study: Qom's Imam Khomeini Square)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahador Zamani 1
  • Shirin Eslami 2

1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

 
Highlights
Simon Bell Landscape Analysis Technique is an appropriate technique in townscape analysis with a physical approach.
Spatial, structural and ordering organizing patterns have the most scores from the experts' viewpoints in the Imam Khomeini Square, respectively.
Patterns of visual organizing have the highest scores on the eastern, northern, western and southern sides of the studied square, respectively.
 
Introduction
Townscape is a complex environmental phenomenon in physical and perceptual terms, created by various layers of form, function, and meaning through interaction with the human mind, and plays an important role in promotion of the visual and perceptual capabilities of urban spaces. Although mere view and reading of the city as townscape will not be responsive to the complex urban problems, it is necessary to consider townscape as a basic, essential tool (although not sufficient) for reading the city text in order to respond to part of the urban issues and the rights of citizenship. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the visual and spatial quality of Imam Khomeini Square in the city of Qom, Iran based on expert viewpoints in order to answer the main research question: Based on the criteria and sub-criteria derived from Simon Bell Landscape Analysis Technique, which side of Qom’s Imam Khomeini Square is prioritized for redesign intervention?
Theoretical Framework
In visual analysis, different approaches to the subject can be adopted, some of the most important being the place-based approach, visual approach, subjective approach, physical approach, organizational approach, and visibility approach. Among the above, the physical approach is selected as basis for this paper, in turn based on the Simon Bell landscape analysis framework. In his book Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape, Bill proposes this framework to designers as an alphabet of aesthetics. This framework includes basic elements, variables, and patterns of visual organization, as follows.
Basic elements: Point, line, plane, solid volume, open volume.
Variables: Number, position, direction, orientation, size, shape (form), interval, texture, density, color, time, light, visual force, visual inertia.
Patterns: The organizational principles can be grouped into three categories, as follows.
Spatial: nearness, enclosure, interlock, continuity, similarity, figure and ground.
Structural: balance, tension, rhythm, proportion, scale.
Ordering: axis, symmetry, hierarchy, datum, transformation (Bell, 2007: 22).
 In visual analysis, different approaches to the subject can be adopted. Some of the most important approaches include the place approach, visual approach, subjective approach, physical approach, organizational approach, and visibility approach. Among the visual analysis approaches, the physical approach is selected as the theoretical framework of this paper, in turn based on the Simon Bell landscape analysis framework. In his book Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape, Bell proposes this framework to designers as an alphabet of aesthetics. The presentation of this alphabet follows a tripartite structure. First, the basic constituents of each landscape are investigated and discussed. Each of these basic elements may be varied in a number of ways. They may also be organized into different patterns. It is the combination of these three components—the element, its variation, and its organization—that describes the existing landscape patterns, or produces new visual designs and patterns. An appropriate design contributes to accurate choice of elements and variables and of coherently harmonious modes of organization. The components of the tripartite structure are as follows (Bell, 2007: 22).
Basic elements: Point, line, plane, solid volume, open volume.
Variables: Number, position, direction, orientation, size, shape (form), interval, texture, density, color, time, light, visual force, visual inertia.
Patterns: The organizational principles can be grouped into three categories, as follows.
Spatial: nearness, enclosure, interlock, continuity, similarity, figure and ground.
Structural: balance, tension, rhythm, proportion, scale.
Ordering: axis, symmetry, hierarchy, datum, transformation (Bell, 2007: 22).
Methodology
To help achieve the aimof this research, a descriptive-analytical method with a qualitative-quantitative approachwas applied. For assessment of the current conditions, the required data were collected and analyzed based on the Simon Bell Landscape Analysis Technique using observation, photography, and the SWOT and AHP techniques. After the research literature was reviewed, an initial survey and analysis was made of the visual qualities supported by the framework through field observation and photography of the square. Then, the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats of the tripartite organizing patterns of all the square sides were examined in SWOT tables. Next, the criteria and sub-criteria of the selected framework were weighted. For that purpose, the average viewpoints of thirty urban experts were taken into consideration using a questionnaire, evaluation matrices, and the AHP technique. The rate of inconsistency in the experts’ judgments was less than 0.1, indicating the consistency and logical validity of the experts’ viewpoints.
Results and Discussion
According to the research findings, the townscape analysis of Imam Khomeini Square based on the selected framework rates the spatial organizing pattern 43.9%, the structural organizing pattern 38.3%, and the ordering organizing pattern 17.8%. Overall, the evaluation of townscape organizing patterns exhibited the highest value, i.e. 44.4% of the score, on the eastern side, 29.4% on the northern side, 16.4% on the western side, and 9.8% on the southern side.
Conclusion
The results of the present study demonstrate that the spatial, structural, and ordering organizing patterns received the highest scores, in that order, from the experts’ viewpoints on the four sides of Imam Khomeini Square. In the spatial organizing pattern, the highest scores concerned the sub-criteria of figure and ground, interlock, enclosure, continuity, similarity, and nearness, in that order. In the structural organizing pattern, balance, proportion, rhythm, scale, and tension scored highest, and hierarchy, axis, symmetry, datum, and transformation obtained the highest scores in the ordering organizing pattern. The patterns of visual organizing exhibited the highest scores on the eastern, northern, western, and southern sides of the square, in that order. Therefore, the southern side of the square was prioritized for redesign.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban townscape
  • Urban Squares scape
  • Simon Bell Landscape Analysis Technique
  • Visual-Spatial Analysis
  • Qom's Imam Khomeini Square
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