میزان موفقیت فضاهای جمعی به میزان استفاده از آن مکان و حضور انسان وابسته است. انسان به صورت پیوسته با مکان همراه بوده و نوعی تعامل در آن را ایجاد کرده که منجر به شکلگیری روابط اجتماعی و اجتماعپذیری فضای باز جمعی شده است. در دهههای اخیر، بیتوجهی به حفظ و ارتقای حیات جمعی در برخی فضاهای باز موجب از بین رفتن اهمیت و نقش فضا شده است. همچنین عدم استفاده از معیارهای فضاهای باز عمومی برای اجتماعپذیری فضاها منجر به خالی و رانده شدن فضاها شده است. از این رو شناخت معیارهای ایجاد کننده و ارتقادهنده اجتماعپذیری در فضاهای باز جمعی به منظور رونق بخشیدن به این گونه فضاها در مقیاسهای مختلف ضروری است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر کیفیت فضای باز جمعی محیطهای مسکونی و تأثیر آن در ایجاد تعامل بین کاربران و پاسخ به این پرسش که حضور افراد در این فضاها چگونه منجر به اجتماعپذیری فضای باز جمعی و عاملی در جهت موفقیت فضا میشود، انجام شده است. از این رو چهار فضای باز مشترک جمعی در مقیاس مجتمعهای سکونتی در منطقه شش شهرداری شهر شیراز انتخاب شد. این پژوهش با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی به روش پیمایش و با استفاده از ابزار سنجش پرسشنامه صورت گرفته است. حجم نمونه 488 نفر از ساکنان مجتمع مسکونی است. تجزیه تحلیل دادهها با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و با بهرهگیری از نرمافزار SPSS انجام شده است. پس از تحلیل و دستهبندی ابعاد در سطح نظریه مکان و استخراج هفت مؤلفه مؤثر بر کیفیت فضاهای جمعی و اجتماعپذیری (که شامل ایمنی و امنیت، انعطافپذیری، نفوذپذیری، فعالیتپذیری، تعاملاجتماعی، هویت مکان و ادراک محیط است) در چگونگی برقراری تعامل و ارتباط کاربران محیط چهار نتیجه حاصل گردید. نخست ایجاد آفرینش فضاهایی پویا، دوم ایجاد فضاهای جمعی، سوم پیوستگی و تعامل و چهارم تقویت درک متقابل از رفتارهای محیط کیفیت مکانهای باز جمعی را میتوان ارتقا بخشید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Explaining the relationship between the components affecting the quality of collective open space in promoting the sociability of the environment
Therefore, acquiring knowledge about the developing and improving factors of sociability in open public spaces to revive these spaces in various scales is necessary.
The quality of shared public spaces in terms of sociability; given that this quality is highly effective in the amiability of the environment and the quality of its residents’ lives.
Hence, open spaces in residential complexes are the fundamental element of building space and the heart of social affairs.
Strengthening mutual understanding with the behaviors of the environment enhance the quality of open public spaces.
Public spaces have always had a close connection to human beings and created a form of interaction in space that, in turn, has formed social relations and socialized public spaces. Besides, the neglect of and lack of concern for the standards for open public spaces has made them empty and inutile. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about the factors developing and improving sociability in open public spaces to revive them on various scales. The present study aims to identify and analyze the factors affecting the quality of public spaces in residential areas and their impact on the interaction between residents. Accordingly, the main purpose of this research is to assess and evaluate the factors interpreting the quality of shared public spaces in terms of sociability; given that this quality is highly effective on the amiability of the environment and the quality of its residents’ lives. The set of effective activities and parameters are significant in environment socialization.
Theorists have presented models based on the above concept to categorize the quality and sociability of spaces. In this article, conclusions have been made—according to the space theory of John Panther and Counter and Gustavon’s emphasis on meaning and the significance of its interaction with the environment—regarding the idea that the quality of sociable spaces is the consequent of three aspects, each developing one of the triple qualities in the environment: physical, active, and semantic. The latter is of great significance in terms of the improvement made in the sociability between individuals within the environment. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was established to obtain the effective qualitative components of a favorable design of open public spaces, focusing on the potential of sociability in public spaces and entailing the improvement of such environments.
The descriptive-inferential research method was adopted in this article. First, the quality of open public spaces within residential complexes was assessed, and quantitative data were collected and categorized to determine the proportions, criteria, and spectrum of sociable quality in open spaces. The inclusion criteria considered in this study was to be a resident of one of four residential complexes in Municipal District 6 of the city of Shiraz, Iran. The sample size was calculated using the Cochran formula as 122 individuals in each residential complex. The simple random sampling method was used for sampling. The collected data were authenticated by the residents of the residential complexes through the evaluation method of questionnaires. The reliability of the questionnaires was verified through Cranach’s alpha method—with each factor evaluated individually first, followed by the whole questionnaire. The validity coefficient was assumed to be 0.61, and the sample size was determined as 488 of the residents of the four residential complexes, based on the results from the Cochran formula. The results obtained from the questionnaires were used in the statistical test, using the Pearson correlation coefficient to verify the hypotheses of the research, based on the fact that the scale in this study was interval, and the relationship was linear. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software.
Results and Discussion
The results of this research were focused on the impact of the quality of open public spaces on the emergence of sociable environments in residential complexes in the three physical, active, and semantic dimensions. The study also assessed sociability in residential areas according to the conceptual model, as compared to factors such as security, flexibility, penetrability, activity, sociability, spatial identity, and environmental perception. In the physical dimension, the relationship between physics and sociability was found significant. The most important conclusions made regarding the physical factors in residential complexes emphasized the use of symbols and elements to organize the environment. On the other hand, ease, secure access, and flexible navigation proved effective in the development of interaction between users and the environment, as well as social activity in sociable spaces. In the active and social dimensions, a significant relationship was observed between activity and sociability. The users’ attention to sociable spaces in shared public spaces in residential complexes and social relations and activities conform to the arrangement of open public spaces, appropriate behavior patterns toward the environment, and elements that pertain to environment-fitting activities. Other factors that enhance sociability in these dimensions include accessibility and legibility—especially effective in the active dimension. In the semantic dimension, a significant connection can be seen between sense and sociability. The impact of sociability on the attachment and connection of man to a place is signified through the several forms of connection made by people to the environment. In this dimension, the multiplicity and sequence of spaces are also signified. Consequently, among the three major aspects defining the quality of open public spaces—physical, active, and semantic—the semantic dimension and its relevant components attracted the largest amount of attention from users, and proved to have the greatest impact on sociability in the open spaces between residential complexes. This needs to be included more effectively in the theories of public space design. This study demonstrates how active and physical components affiliate with the concepts and semantics of a place to create a pleasant public space and provide sociability as well.
The findings of this research—providing useful methods for design of open public spaces with an enhanced potential for sociability in the interaction and communication between users—can be decomposed into four branches: creation of active environments, creation of public spaces, association and interaction, and enhancement of mutual understanding with the behaviors of the environment. These findings can improve the quality of open public spaces.
Given the hierarchy of human needs and social dimensions, open spaces in residential complexes form the foundation of social life, creating a background for the emergence and growth of creativity, sociability, collective interaction, communication, entertainment, events, and activities—social, economic, and leisure. Hence, open spaces in residential complexes constitute the fundamental element of the building space and the heart of social affairs.