نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم چغرافیایی و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استاد روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

رشد شهرنشینی با افزایش اختلالات‌روانی همراه است. یکی از مهم­ترین اختلالات‌روانی، استرس درک‌شده توسط شهروندان است. استرس سابقه­ای طولانی در علوم پزشکی دارد. امروزه محیط‌ زندگی شهروندان به‌عنوان منبع اصلی ایجاد استرس شناخته می‌شود. با این رویکرد، پژوهش حاضر در راستای پاسخ به این سوال انجام شد که در محله‌های شهری، چه ابعادی از کیفیت کالبدی بر استرس درک‌شده تأثیر بیشتری دارد. برای پاسخ به این سؤال، محله مفت‌آباد به‌عنوان یک محله با کیفیت نامطلوب و محله مرداویج به‌عنوان یک محله با کیفیت مطلوب در کلانشهر اصفهان انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه کیفیت محیطی محقق ساخته و همچنین پرسشنامه استاندارد استرس درک‌شده کوهن و همکاران (1983) استفاده شد. تعداد 434 نفر در تکمیل پرسشنامه­ها همکاری کردند. تحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی معمولی و جزئی و رگرسیون خطی انجام شد. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش، میزان استرس ادراک شده توسط ساکنان محله مفت‌آباد بیشتر از محله مرداویج بود. نمره میانگین استرس درک شده در محله مفت‌آباد برابر با 07/2 و در محله مرداویج برابر با 04/1 برآورد شد. براساس مدل‌های مستخرج از تحلیل رگرسیون خطی چندمتغیره، متغیرهای زیبایی و نظم بصری، جذابیت عملکردی و آسایش محیطی به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیرگذاری را بر استرس درک‌شده داشتند. براساس مدل­های پیشنهادی، کیفیت کالبدی محیط‌ در محله مفت‌آباد 67 درصد و در محله مرداویج 46 درصد از تغییرات استرس درک شده را پیش بینی کردند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر در توافق با سایر پژوهش ها نشان داد، افرادی که در محیط های شهری با کیفیت پایین زندگی می‌کنند بیشتر از سایر افراد در معرض استرس هستند. از این رو رابطه میان برنامه‌ریزان شهری و روانشناسان باید تقویت شود تا راهکارها و سیاست­هایی اتخاذ شود که از طریق برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی محیط بتوان شاخص­های سلامت‌روانی شهروندان همچون استرس درک‌شده را بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the relationship between physical urban environmental Quality and Citizen’s Perception of Stress (Case study: Isfahan City)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Reza Azadeh 1
  • Jamal Mohammadi 2
  • Hamid Taher Neshat Doost 3

1 PhD student in Geography and urban planning, faculty of geographical science and planning, university of Isfahan

2 Associate Professor in Geography and urban planning, faculty of geographical science and planning, university of Isfahan

3 Professor in Psychology, faculty of Education and Psychology, university of Isfahan

چکیده [English]

Highlights
Today cities serve as powerful forces in shaping the mental health of citizens.
Treatment of mental disorders such as perceived stress requires an interdisciplinary approach.
The relation between urban Planner and psychologists must be augmented in order to improve the variables of resident mental health.
 
Introduction
There are growing concerns worldwide about the interdependencies between city life and mental well-being. Perceived stress is a mental disorder induced by urbanization. Today, the quality of the environment that is built and the neighborhood in which residents live is recognized as the main source of stress. In addition, recent research in the context of psychology suggests that urban life is stressful.The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood quality and perceived stress. For that purpose, two neighborhoods in the city of Isfahan, Iran are selected.
Theoretical Framework
Perceived stress is affected by numerous factors such as individual characteristics, lifestyles, life events, and job variables. The physical quality of the built environment is a factor which is generally underestimated (Beil & Hanes, 2013). Green space is a physical quality of the built environment which affects mental health, and decreases residents’ stress (Roe et al., 2013; Wolch et al., 2014). Another environmental variable which affects the mental health of residents is the transportation pattern. The walkability and bikeability of a neighborhood is strongly correlated with the residents’ mental health (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2016). There is a great deal of evidence that the accessibility of a walking or bicycling route is significantly effective on the general health of residents (Frank & Engelke, 2001). In addition, availability of public spaces is another variable of physical quality which affects residents’ mental health (Knöll et al., 2018). Public spaces provide opportunities for residents to interact with each other. On the other hand, the increase in interaction among residents leads to a rise in their confidence, and, eventually, improves the physiological capability of residents when confronted with changes. Finally, appropriate physiological reactions decrease stress.
A variable which can be considered here is environmental security. Studies have demonstrated that the violence present in urban communities and residential neighborhoods threatens mental health, and deeply affects psychological behavior (Clark et al., 2008). Moreover, another variable of environment quality is environmental comfort. For instance, living in neighborhoods which are highly polluted, whether with noise or light pollution, influences the sleep quality of residents, and eventually increases stress. In addition, non-standard houses with improper cooling or heating systems can influence the variables of mental health (Hale et al., 2013). The conceptual model of this paper expresses the relationship between the built environment variable and the mental health variable. In this model, environment beauty, functional attraction, physical form, and environmental comfort indicate the quality of the built environment as independent variables. Moreover, perceived stress is evaluated as a dependent variable from the viewpoint of mental health.
Methodology
In this study, two questionnaires were used. One is the researcher-made questionnaire of built environment quality, and the other is the perceived stress scale (PSS-14). Two neighborhoods were selected for the study. The survey was conducted via face-to-face structured interviews, and yielded a total of 434 valid samples. Then, 203 individuals in the Moftabad neighborhood and 231 in the Mardavij neighborhood filled out the questionnaires as participants. The data has been analysed using normal and partial correlation coefficients and linear regression.
Result and Discussion
The descriptive statistics on the dependent and independent variables in the examined neighborhoods were compared. Moftabad and Mardavij scored 0.78 and 2.98 in average on environmental beauty. The functional attraction in Moftabad and Mardavij was 0.77 and 2.81, respectively. The median scores on the variables of physical form and environmental comfort were 0.71 and 1.58 in Moftabad and 2.94 and 2.92 in Mardavij. In fact, all the environmental variables were scored on significantly lower by the Moftabad neighborhood than by Mardavij. The total scores on built environment quality were 0.96 in Moftabad and 2.91 in Mardavij. According to the results, it is concluded that the dependent variable, i.e. the level of perceived stress, is higher in the Moftabad neighborhood than in the Mardavij neighborhood. The median scores of stress are 2.07 in Moftabad and 1.04 in Mardavij.
The findings indicate significant inverse relationships between the independent and dependent variables of the research. When the control variables are considered, however, the relationship is preserved, but its intensity decreases.
Based on the results, the significance level of F-statistic is 0.000 in all the three models. This finding, which is obtained through regression analysis and analysis of variance, indicates that the conceptual model of the research is well-fitted. In Moftabad, two variables (environmental beauty and environmental comfort) are capable of predicting the changes in the dependent variable. In this case, the standard coefficients of the above variables are -0.537 and -0.181, respectively. These statistics mean that environmental beauty predicts 53.7%, and environmental comfort predicts 18.1% of the changes in perceived stress in Moftabad. In the Mardavij neighborhood, environmental beauty, functional attraction, and environmental comfort exhibit the highest capability of predicting the dependent variable. They predict 22.6%, 28.9%, and 14.3% of the changes in perceived stress, respectively. Moreover, in the proposed model for the full sample, environmental beauty, functional attraction, and environmental comfort predict 45.9%, 26.8%, and 24.4% of the changes in perceived stress, respectively.
In the second phase of modeling the changes in the dependent variable, the relationship between the built environment quality, i.e. the independent variable, and perceived stress, i.e. the dependent variable, was evaluated. Moreover, three models were proposed in this phase. According to the obtained results, ANOVA provides one significant F-statistic for each of the three models. The adjusted R-squared of the proposed model is greater in Moftabad than in the Mardavij neighborhood. On that basis, it can be stated that the effect of the built environment on stress is more in Moftabad residents than those of the Mardavij neighborhood. Based on the standard coefficient (Beta), the built environment quality of Moftabad predicts 67% of the changes in perceived stress, while the value of this variable in Mardavij is 46.4%. Finally, the built environment quality determines 78.3% of the changes in perceived stress in the full sample.
Conclusion
The results of the present study introduced new aspects of the environmental factors effective on perceived stress. The main finding is that cities serve as powerful forces today in shaping the mental health of citizens. Therefore, treatment of mental disorders requires an interdisciplinary approach. In other words, the living environments of individuals, along with many personal, social, economic, personality, and family issues, are the major sources of mental disorders. To treat mental disorders, therefore, psychologists should interact with urban planners. Lastly, we conducted this research in one Iranian city, i.e. Isfahan. Researchers studying other cities and countries may report different results. The conclusion agreed on by all researchers, however, is that the relationship between urban planning and psychologists should be enhanced more than ever before to reduce the negative impacts of urban neighborhoods on mental disorders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • environmental quality
  • Physical Quality
  • mental health
  • Perceived Stress
Agarwal, S., Satyavada, A., Kaushik, S., & Kumar, R. (2007). Urbanization, urban poverty and health of the urban poor: status, challenges and the way forward. Demography India, 36(1).
Avila-Palencia, I., Panis, L. I., Dons, E., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Raser, E., Götschi, T., Gerike, R., Brand, C., De Nazelle, A., & Orjuela, J. P. (2018). The effects of transport mode use on self-perceived health, mental health, and social contact measures: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Environment international, 120, 199-206.
Azadeh, R., Mohammadi, J., & Doost, H. T. N. (2019). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH (DEPRESSION SCALE): EVIDENCE FROM IRAN. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 13(2), 285-293.
Azimi, N., & Esmaeilzadeh, Y. (2017). Assessing the relationship between house types and residential satisfaction in Tabriz, Iran. International Journal of Urban Sciences, 21(2), 185-203.
Beil, K., & Hanes, D. (2013). The influence of urban natural and built environments on physiological and psychological measures of stress—A pilot study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(4), 1250-1267.
Blanco, H., Alberti, M., Forsyth, A., Krizek, K. J., Rodriguez, D. A., Talen, E., & Ellis, C. (2009). Hot, congested, crowded and diverse: Emerging research agendas in planning. Progress in Planning, 71(4), 153-205.
Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2003). Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighbourhood attachment in urban environments: a confirmation study on the city of Rome. Landscape and urban planning, 65(1-2), 41-52.
Brower, S., & Taylor, R. B. (1997). Qualities of ideal and real-world neighborhoods. Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values, and Design Practices, edited by Madi Gray. Stockholm, Sweden: Kungl Tekniska Hogskolan, 99-106.
Chan, I. Y., & Liu, A. M. (2018). Effects of neighborhood building density, height, greenspace, and cleanliness on indoor environment and health of building occupants. Building and environment, 145, 213-222.
Chong, S. A., Abdin, E., Vaingankar, J. A., Heng, D., Sherbourne, C., Yap, M., Lim, Y. W., Wong, H. B., Ghosh-Dastidhar, B., & Kwok, K. W. (2012). A population-based survey of mental disorders in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine-Singapore, 41(2), 49.
Clark, C., Ryan, L., Kawachi, I., Canner, M. J., Berkman, L., & Wright, R. J. (2008). Witnessing community violence in residential neighborhoods: a mental health hazard for urban women. Journal of Urban Health, 85(1), 22-38.
Cohen-Cline, H., Turkheimer, E., & Duncan, G. E. (2015). Access to green space, physical activity and mental health: a twin study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 69(6), 523-529.
DeSantis, A., Troxel, W. M., Beckman, R., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., Hunter, G. P., Hale, L., Buysse, D. J., & Dubowitz, T. (2016). Is the association between neighborhood characteristics and sleep quality mediated by psychological distress? An analysis of perceived and objective measures of 2 Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Sleep Health, 2(4), 277-282.
Evans, G. W. (2003). The built environment and mental health. Journal of Urban Health, 80(4), 536-555.
Frank, L. D., & Engelke, P. O. (2001). The built environment and human activity patterns: exploring the impacts of urban form on public health. Journal of planning literature, 16(2), 202-218.
Gascon, M., Triguero-Mas, M., Martínez, D., Dadvand, P., Forns, J., Plasència, A., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2015). Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(4), 4354-4379.
Greenberg, M. R. (1999). Improving neighborhood quality: A hierarchy of needs. Housing Policy Debate, 10(3), 601-624.
Gurram, M. K. (2016). Urban Environmental Quality Assessment at Ward Level Using AHP Based GIS Multi-Criteria Modeling–A Study on Hyderabad City, India. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, 15(3).
Hale, L., Hill, T. D., Friedman, E., Nieto, F. J., Galvao, L. W., Engelman, C. D., Malecki, K. M., & Peppard, P. E. (2013). Perceived neighborhood quality, sleep quality, and health status: evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin. Social Science & Medicine, 79, 16-22.
Ho, H. C., Lau, K. K.-L., Yu, R., Wang, D., Woo, J., Kwok, T. C. Y., & Ng, E. (2017). Spatial variability of geriatric depression risk in a high-density city: A data-driven socio-environmental vulnerability mapping approach. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(9), 994.
Izuan, A. Z., Azhar, S. S., Tan, M. K. S., & Syed-Sharizman, S. A. R. (2018). Neighbourhood influences and its association with the mental health of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asian journal of Psychiatry, 38, 35-41.
Knöll, M., Li, Y., Neuheuser, K., & Rudolph-Cleff, A. (2015). Using space syntax to analyse stress ratings of open public spaces. Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, London, UK,
Knöll, M., Neuheuser, K., Cleff, T., & Rudolph-Cleff, A. (2018). A tool to predict perceived urban stress in open public spaces. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 45(4), 797-813.
Kowaltowski, D. C., da Silva, V. G., Pina, S. A., Labaki, L. C., Ruschel, R. C., & de Carvalho Moreira, D. (2006). Quality of life and sustainability issues as seen by the population of low-income housing in the region of Campinas, Brazil. Habitat International, 30(4), 1100-1114.
Kuo, F. E. (2011). Parks and Other Green Environments:'Essential Components of a Healthy Human Habitat'. Australasian Parks and Leisure, 14(1), 10-12.
Lederbogen, F., Haddad, L., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2013). Urban social stress–risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia. Environmental pollution, 183, 2-6.
Lederbogen, F., Kirsch, P., Haddad, L., Streit, F., Tost, H., Schuch, P., Wüst, S., Pruessner, J. C., Rietschel, M., & Deuschle, M. (2011). City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature, 474(7352), 498-501.
Lee, E.-H. (2012). Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress scale. Asian nursing research, 6(4), 121-127.
Li, J., & Liu, Z. (2018). Housing stress and mental health of migrant populations in urban China. Cities, 81, 172-179.
Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., de Vries, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Schellevis, F. G., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2009). Morbidity is related to a green living environment. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 63(12), 967-973.
Melis, G., Gelormino, E., Marra, G., Ferracin, E., & Costa, G. (2015). The effects of the urban built environment on mental health: A cohort study in a large northern Italian city. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(11), 14898-14915.
Mubi Brighenti, A., & Pavoni, A. (2019). City of unpleasant feelings. Stress, comfort and animosity in urban life. Social & Cultural Geography, 20(2), 137-156.
Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Khreis, H., Verlinghieri, E., & Rojas-Rueda, D. (2016). Transport and health: a marriage of convenience or an absolute necessity. Environment international, 88, 150-152.
Northridge, M. E., Sclar, E. D., & Biswas, P. (2003). Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. Journal of Urban Health, 80(4), 556-568.
Ochodo, C., Ndetei, D., Moturi, W., & Otieno, J. (2014). External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults. Journal of Urban Health, 91(5), 908-927.
Pilkington, P., Grant, M., & Orme, J. (2008). Promoting integration of the health and built environment agendas through a workforce development initiative. Public health, 122(6), 545-551.
Poortinga, W., Calve, T., Jones, N., Lannon, S., Rees, T., Rodgers, S. E., Lyons, R. A., & Johnson, R. (2017). Neighborhood quality and attachment: Validation of the revised residential environment assessment tool. Environment and behavior, 49(3), 255-282.
Roe, J. J., Thompson, C. W., Aspinall, P. A., Brewer, M. J., Duff, E. I., Miller, D., Mitchell, R., & Clow, A. (2013). Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(9), 4086-4103.
Rollings, K. A., Wells, N. M., Evans, G. W., Bednarz, A., & Yang, Y. (2017). Housing and neighborhood physical quality: Children's mental health and motivation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 50, 17-23.
Satcher, D., Okafor, M., & Dill, L. J. (2012). Impact of the built environment on mental and sexual health: Policy implications and recommendations. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2012.
Siddiqui, A., Siddiqui, A., Maithani, S., Jha, A., Kumar, P., & Srivastav, S. (2018). Urban growth dynamics of an Indian metropolitan using CA Markov and Logistic Regression. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 21(3), 229-236.
Srinivasan, S., O’fallon, L. R., & Dearry, A. (2003). Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. American journal of public health, 93(9), 1446-1450.
Srivastava, K. (2009). Urbanization and mental health. Industrial psychiatry journal, 18(2), 75.
Triguero-Mas, M., Donaire-Gonzalez, D., Seto, E., Valentín, A., Martínez, D., Smith, G., Hurst, G., Carrasco-Turigas, G., Masterson, D., & van den Berg, M. (2017). Natural outdoor environments and mental health: Stress as a possible mechanism. Environmental research, 159, 629-638.
Tyrväinen, L., Ojala, A., Korpela, K., Lanki, T., Tsunetsugu, Y., & Kagawa, T. (2014). The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 1-9.
Velarde, M. D., Fry, G., & Tveit, M. (2007). Health effects of viewing landscapes–Landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6(4), 199-212.
Weich, S., Blanchard, M., Prince, M., Burton, E., Erens, B., & Sproston, K. (2002). Mental health and the built environment: Cross–sectional survey of individual and contextual risk factors for depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180(5), 428-433.
Węziak-Białowolska, D. (2016). Quality of life in cities–Empirical evidence in comparative European perspective. Cities, 58, 87-96.
White, B. P. (2014). The Perceived Stress Scale for Children: A pilot study in a sample of 153 children. International Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 2(2), 45-52.
Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J., & Newell, J. P. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landscape and urban planning, 125, 234-244.