نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد یاسوج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، یاسوج، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه برنامه ریزی و مدیریت شهری، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، تهران، ایران.

4 استاد، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

محیط انسان ساختی که انسان در آن زندگی می کند، صرفاً ابزار علمی یا نتیجه رویدادهای بی هدف نیست، بلکه واجد ساختار بوده و معنا را تجسم می بخشد. این معنا و ساختارها بازتاب فهم انسان از محیط طبیعی، انسان ساخت و وضعیت وجودی کلی اوست. معنایی را که انسان از محیط انسان ساخت، به صورت فردی و یا اجتماعی درک می کند، سبب ایجاد خاطراتی در ذهن او می گردد که در نهایت سبب افزایش حس تعلق ساکنین نسبت به فضای زیستی می شود. هدف این پژوهش، کشف عوامل خاطره ساز و ارزیابی میزان تأثیرگذاری آن بر ارتقای حس تعلق ساکنین محلات نسبت به فضای زیستی شان است. حس تعلق، امری چند بعدی است و عوامل متفاوتی در ارتقای این حس نقش دارد. بر اساس ادبیات موجود، خاطره به عنوان یکی از معیارها برای برآورد حس تعلق افراد نسبت به محل سکونتشان استخراج گردید. به منظور ارزیابی الگوی نظری، سه محله سنگ سیاه، اسحاق بیگ و بازار مرغ از میان محلات قدیمی و سه محله آبیاری، اصلاح نژاد و هوابرد از میان محلات جدید شهر شیراز به عنوان نمونه موردی انتخاب گردیدند و پرسشنامه ای متناسب در میان آنها توزیع شد. پژوهش حاضر کاربردی بوده و به شیوه  همبستگی و با استفاده از روش تحلیلی _ توصیفی تدوین گردیده است.  داده های پرسشنامه با استفاده از نرم افزار Spss  ورژن 24 و آزمون ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن و Tukeyو Anowa و SamplesT- Test Paired و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج پژوهش بر همگن بودن محلات انتخابی در بافت جدید و قدیم از نظر تشابه ویژگی ها به طور مجزا و اهمیت عامل خاطره بر ارتقای حس تعلق در تمامی محلات دلالت دارد. بر این اساس، تأثیر خاطرات اجتماعی نسبت به خاطرات کالبدی بر ارتقای حس تعلق ساکنین محلات بیشتر بوده است. در مجموع، شاخص عناصر خاطره ساز از خاطرات کالبدی و آشنایی با محله از خاطرات اجتماعی بیشترین تأثیر و عامل ابنیه تاریخی از خاطرات کالبدی و سازمان های مردم نهاد از خاطرات اجتماعی کمترین تأثیر را در ارتقای حس تعلق ساکنین نسبت به فضای زیستی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Applying of the cognitive effect of the role of memory index on promoting the sense of belonging of residents in new and old neighborhoods in Shiraz City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahrad PourMohammad 1
  • Seyyed Alireza shojaei 2
  • Hosein Kalantari Khalil Abad 3
  • Masoud Taghvaei 4

1 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj Branch, Yasuj, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Department of Urban Planning and Management, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights
- The results obtained from the present paper can be considered as a point of origin for assessment of the cognitive effects of social and physical memory on the promotion of residents’ sense of attachment to the living spaces in their neighborhoods.
- In the old fabric, the highest effects on the promotion of residents’ sense of attachment to their living spaces are associated with the neighborhood memorability factor, from physical memory, and individuals’ familiarity with the neighborhood, from the social memory.
- In the new fabric, however, the highest effects on the promotion of residents’ sense of attachment to their living spaces are associated with the factor of the neighborhood’s memory elements, from physical memory, and neighborhood relations, from social memory.
 
Introduction
A sense of belonging to a place, i.e. place attachment, means to have a perception of the environment and more or less conscious emotions on the surroundings, which brings one into an internal relationship with the surrounding environment. Thus, a person’s perception and emotions are bound by and integrated with the semantic context of the environment. A sense of place gives people comfort in an environment, and also leads individuals towards possession of an identity. Moreover, it can be stated that the sense of belonging to a space is a complex concept of human emotion and attachment to an environment, which is developed as a result of adaptation to the space and man’s application thereof.
Theoretical Framework
A review of the related literature can lead one to the roles of different factors in the formation of this sense, including the physical aspects of the environment, social characteristics of the residents, relationships between individuals and the environment, duration of residence, and, in general, memorability factors. The memorability factors influencing residents’ place attachment to the environment in their neighborhoods are divided into the two broad categories of physical memories and social memories. The measures affecting the probability of development of collective memory in cities include the residents’ familiarity with the neighborhood, neighborhood relations, etc., and the measures concerning the development of physical and spatial memory include the neighborhood center features, signs, introversion, etc.
Methodology
The process of conducting the research is described as involving seven steps. The first step includes an extraction of the memorable factors which are influential on residents’ sense of attachment. For this purpose, the memory indicators are extracted via the documentary-analytical method. The results from the section on the theoretical framework reveal that the physical and social indicators are the most influential factors on the promotion of the sense of attachment in residents of neighborhoods in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The second step involved the development of the main research questionnaire. The features of physical and social memory are considered as the independent variables, and residents’ sense of attachment is considered as the dependent variable. In the third step, the ANOVA test is used for assessment of the level of homogeneity of the population from the old fabric and that from the new fabric. In the fourth step, the Spearman correlation coefficient is calculated for investigation of the effects of the memory factor on the promotion of the sense of attachment in the old and new fabrics. The fifth step involves the application of Tukey’s integrated test for comparison of the effects of physical and social memory on residents’ levels of  sense of attachment in different neighborhoods. In the sixth step, the paired-samples T test is employed to analyze the effects of physical and social memory on the improvement of residents’ sense of attachment to their neighborhoods and the significance of the differences. Consequently, the Pearson coefficient is used for investigation of the correlation between the different elements comprising the physical and social memory component, which influences residents’ sense of attachment to their neighborhoods. The neighborhoods selected for the case study include three situated in the old fabric, namely Sang Siyah, Eshagh Beig, and Bazare Morgh, examined along with three neighborhoods located in the new fabric, namely Abyari, Eslahe Nezhad, and Havabord. The districts to be examined for the case study are selected separately from the old and new fabrics given the similarities of the cultural components and the shared physical and social features measured in the present study.
Results and Discussion
It can be stated based on the above that the effect of physical and social memory on the promotion of residents’ sense of attachment in the selected neighborhoods of the same fabric is insignificant, and the selection for the case study has been appropriate in terms of feature similarity and homogeneity at the end of the assessment. The results obtained from the Spearman correlation coefficient reveal that a significant relationship exists between the sense of place attachment and memory in all the neighborhoods from the old and new fabrics. However, it can be stated in general that the Eshagh Beig neighborhood exhibits the greatest effect of physical memory in the old fabric on the improvement of the sense of attachment, and Bazare Morgh shows the least effect. In the new fabric, the Abyari neighborhood exhibits the greatest effect, and Havabord shows the least.
 Conclusion
In terms of the effects of social memory on the promotion of the sense of attachment, the Sang Siyah neighborhood exhibits the greatest effect, and Bazare Morgh shows the least effect in the old fabric, while the Abyari neighborhood exhibits the greatest effect, and Havabord shows the least in the new fabric. Based on this assessment, the mean effect of physical memory on the promotion of the sense of attachment is less than that of social memory in the old fabric. In the new fabric, however, the mean effect of physical memory on the promotion of the sense of attachment is significantly greater than that of social memory, and it can be stated in general that residents’ sense of attachment to neighborhoods in the new fabric is significantly lower than that in the old fabric. Given the results for the old fabric, memory-making elements in the neighborhood, from the physical memory indicator, and individuals’ familiarity, from social memory, exhibit the greatest effects, while the historical monuments factor, from physical memory, and NGOs, from social memory, have the least effects on residents’ sense of attachment to the living spaces. In the new fabric, memory-making elements in the neighborhood, from physical memory, and neighbors’ relations, from social memory, exhibit the greatest effects, and historical monuments, from physical memory, and social class, from social memory, have the lowest effects on the improvement of residents’ sense of attachment to the living spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sense of belonging to the place
  • Collective Memory
  • historical neighborhood
  • newly-built neighborhood
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