نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه جندی شاپور، دزفول، ایران.

چکیده

با توسعه فیزیکی شهرها و گسترش استفاده از وسایل نقلیه موتوری، فضاهای عمومی شهرهای امروز، کمتر برای انجام رفت­وآمدهای روزمره عابران پیاده مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرند. در چنین شرایطی رویدادهای فرهنگی صورت گرفته در دل فضاهای شهری اهمیتی دوچندان در ارتقای پتانسیل اجتماع­پذیری این فضاها می­یابند. خنیاگری یا موسیقی خیابانی، گونه­ای از خُرد_رویدادی فرهنگی در قلمروهمگانی است که با اثرگذاری بر کیفیت های قلمرو همگانی شهر، زندگی همگانی در فضاهای عمومی شهر را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد.هدف اصلی این پژوهش، مقایسه میزان تأثیرپذیری هریک از اشکال حضور شهروندان در فضاهای همگانی، شامل حضور انتخابی، حضور اجتماعی غیرفعال و حضور اجتماعی فعال، در زمان اجرای موسیقی خیابانی و همچنین مقایسه میزان تأثیرگذاری عوامل محیطی و عوامل درونی مرتبط، بر تمایل شهروندان به حضور در این فضاهاست. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و داده­های آن از طریق توزیع 250 پرسشنامه در قالب طیف لیکرت، به صورت تصادفی میان افراد حاضر در شش محدوده اجرای موسیقی خیابانی در کلانشهر شیراز به دست آمده است. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون رتبه­ای حاکی از آن است که حضور اجتماعی غیرفعال، بیش از دو مؤلفه دیگر، متأثر از اجرای موسیقی خیابانی است. همچنین عوامل محیطی مرتبط با موسیقی خیابانی در مقایسه با عوامل درونی تأثیر بیشتری بر حضور شهروندان در فضاهای شهری یادشده دارند. با تکیه بر نتایج حاصل از نمونه­های مورد مطالعه، سیاست تجهیز مکان­ اجرا به زیرساخت­های پیشرفته، تناسب سطح فنی اجراکنندگان با میزان اهمیت مکان و به کارگیری ترکیبی از سیاست­های تشویقی و بازدارنده در راستای تعدیل کیفیت محیطی مکان اجرا با هدف افزایش قابلیت حضورپذیری قلمروهمگانی، پیشنهاد گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Impact of Street Music Performance on the Public Life in Urban Spaces: the Case Study of Public Realms of Shiraz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mojtaba Fakhrahmad 1
  • Sahand Lotfi 2
  • Golrokh Zolghadri 3
  • Zahra Namdari Noruzani 3

1 School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Jondi Shapoor University, Dezful, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights

Internal and environmental features relevant to street music are investigated to allow discovery of the predictors of the sociability of the public realm.
Voluntary presence, active social presence, and passive social presence are examined as three types of public life characteristic.
Environmental factors have a predominant impact on the citizens’ attendance of music performance venues as compared to internal factors.

 
Introduction
The physical expansion of cities and the proliferation of motor vehicle use have led to the fact that contemporary public spaces are less primed to people’s daily commute. In such circumstances, cultural events held at the heart of the urban settings turn up essential to the improvement of the socialization potentials of the public realm. Street music is a type of cultural micro-event emerging in the public domain, which affects the public life of urban spaces by boosting the socio-cultural qualities of the public realm. The purpose of this study was to compare the impacts of the different forms of citizen presence in public spaces, including voluntary presence, inactive social presence, and active social presence during the street music performance, and to compare the impacts of environmental and relevant internal factors on audience enthusiasm.
Street performance in Iran has not been limited to a specific era, and the contents have mainly included narration of the lives of mythical figures and praise for the kings. Reproducibility can be considered as a major characteristic of these performances, which have been well integrated with urban open spaces from the past to the present, both individually and collectively.  
Theoretical framework
Pioneers of public life studies have pointed out several categorizations of presence in urban public spaces mainly through direct observation. Since most of today’s cities are automobile-oriented, citizens’ mandatory attendance of public spaces is not usually observed. Their voluntary activities, however, could be encouraged through enhancement of the quality of the characteristics of the space. Improvement of the quality of public spaces is aimed at making these spaces more sociable through facilitation of social activities, which are mainly dependent on the contribution of more and more citizens in voluntary activities. Temporary communication among people in public spaces creates a third form of activity, namely social activity, which could be performed either actively or passively. The latter is more important to public life researchers because livable spaces are those where a variety of social activities are held.
One of the most important events that occur at music venues is the provision of the opportunity to gain more knowledge of other people’s cultures, which realized through face-to-face interactions with other people at such places. A Music venue can also define the identity of a street or neighborhood or evoke shared memories of a community.   
Urban soundscape is affected much more by street music performances than urban landscape. Sounds heard at public spaces are twofold: main sounds and background sounds, which could lead to different perceptions of soundscape at these spaces.
Therefore, street music performance plays a significant role in the revitalization of the urban public realm by attracting people in both static and dynamic modes, on the one hand, and encouraging their long-term interaction with each other, on the other.
Methodology
The present descriptive-analytical study used data obtained through distribution of 250 questionnaires, in the form of a Likert scale, randomly among people present at six sites of street music performance in the city of Shiraz, Iran. Ordinal logistic regression was carried out to obtain the main predictors of presence at the street music venues. The dependent variables included the tendency to perform voluntary activities, the tendency to perform active social activities, and the tendency to perform passive social activities. The independent variables fell into two categories: the environmental factors associated with music performance in urban spaces, including perceived security, sense of pleasure, place identity, and psychological comfort, and the internal factors associated with music performance in urban spaces, including interest in music, performance venue, performers’ mobility, and music sound clarity.
Results and discussion
The results of the ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that passive social presence was affected by street music performance more than the other two components. Moreover, environmental factors relevant to street music had predominant impacts on the citizens’ attendance of these urban spaces as compared to internal factors. Of the significant predictors of voluntary presence, gender, sound clarity, and sense of pleasure were found to be the most important among all the variables, the internal variables, and the environmental variables, respectively. Passive social presence was mainly determined by the sense of pleasure, the most effective factor in both the complete model and the set of environmental features, and by sound clarity, the most effective factor in the set of internal variables. Active social presence was predicted mainly by gender, perceived security, and sound clarity, the most important factors in the sets of all variables, environmental variables, and internal variables, respectively.
Conclusion
Based on the results derived from the case study, a policy was proposed to provide the venues with advanced equipment and adapt the musicians’ technical levels given the importance of each space in order to increase the vibrant attendance of the public realm. Another suggestion was to apply a policy combined with incentives and deterrent initiatives to adjust the environmental quality of the venues.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Street Music
  • sociability
  • Public Realm
  • Voluntary Presence
  • Social Presence
Abolhasani Taraghi, M. (2004). A reflection on minstrelsy in ancient Iran. Journal of The Faculty of Letters and Humanities, 2(36-37), 183-202. [In Persian]
Adhitya, S. (2018). Musical Cities. UCL Press.
Aletta, F., Kang, J., & Axelsson, Ö. (2016). Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models. Landscape and Urban Planning, 149, 65-74.
Brown, A. L., Kang, J., & Gjestland, T. (2011). Towards standardization in soundscape preference assessment. Applied Acoustics, 72(6), 387-392.
Burke, M., & Schmidt, A. (2013). How should we plan and regulate live music in Australian cities? Learnings from Brisbane. Australian Planner, 50(1), 68-78.
Carah, N., Regan, S., Goold, L., Rangiah, L., Miller, P., & Ferris, J. (2020). Original live music venues in hyper-commercialised nightlife precincts: exploring how venue owners and managers navigate cultural, commercial and regulatory forces. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 27(5), 621-635.
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2010). Public Places Urban Spaces, Second Edition: The Dimensions of Urban Design (2 edition ed.). Architectural Press.
Cohen, S. (2007a). Decline, Renewal and the City in Popular Music Culture: Beyond the Beatles (1st edition ed.). Routledge.
Cohen, S. (2007b). "Rock Landmark at Risk": Popular Music, Urban Regeneration, and the Built Urban Environment. Journal of Popular Music Studies, 19(1), 3-25.
Cohen, S. (2012). Live music and urban landscape: mapping the beat in Liverpool. Social Semiotics, 22(5), 587-603.
Cullen, G. (1995). Concise Townscape. Architectural Press.
Deloitte Access, E. (2011). Economic, Social and Cultural Contribution of Venue-based Live Music in Victoria. Arts Victoria.
Devine, A., & Quinn, B. (2019). Building social capital in a divided city: the potential of events. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(10), 1495-1512.
Dines, N., Cattell, V., Gesler, W., & Curtis, S. (2006). Public spaces, social relations and well-being in East London. Policy Press.
Garg, G., & Kothari, C. R. (2019). Research methodology: methods and techniques (Fourth multi colour edition ed.). New Age International (P) Limited.
Gehl, J. (2011). Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space (Sixth edition ed.). Island Press.
Gehl, J., & Svarre, B. (2013). How to Study Public Life (Illustrated edition ed.). Island Press.
Golkar, K. (2011). Creating sustainable place: Reflections on urban design theory. Shahid Beheshti University. [In Persian]
Grazian, D. (2009). Urban Nightlife, Social Capital, and the Public Life of Cities. Sociological Forum, 24(4), 908-917.
Hassanli, N., Walters, T., & Williamson, J. (2020). ‘You feel you’re not alone’: how multicultural festivals foster social sustainability through multiple psychological sense of community. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(11-12), 1792-1809.
Hitters, E., & Mulder, M. (2020). Live music ecologies and festivalisation: the role of urban live music policies. International Journal of Music Business Research (online), 9(2), 38-57.
Hitters, E., & Winter, C. (2020). The festivalization of live music. International Journal of Music Business Research (online), 9(2), 4-12.
Kang, J., & Zhang, M. (2010). Semantic differential analysis of the soundscape in urban open public spaces. Building and Environment, 45(1), 150-157.
Kronenburg, R. (2020). Sound spaces. Pop music concerts and festivals in urban environments. In The future of live music (1st ed.). Bloomsbury.
Lang, J. T. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
McNamara, L., & Quilter, J. (2016). Street Music and the Law in Australia: Busker Perspectives on the Impact of Local Council Rules and Regulations. Journal of Musicological Research, 35(2), 113-127.
Meschi, M., Modrek, A., & Asl Fallah, P. (2015). Street Music In Seek of Music Place in City Landscape. Landscape, 7(31), 48-55. [In Persian]
Modrek, A., Asl Fallah, P., & Meschi, M. (2016). Street music, from the past to the present; The place of street music in the landscape of Tehran Journal of Art and Civilization of the Orient(13), 23-32. [In Persian]
Montgomery, J. (2007). Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Journal of Urban Design, 3(1), 93-116.
Norusis, M. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion (1 edition ed.). Addison Wesley.
Nunes, P. (2019). Cities Regulated by Cultural Events: Tracking Music Festivals in Lisbon and São Paulo. International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure, 2(1-2), 147-162.
Prato, P. (2008). Music in the streets: the example of Washington Square Park in New York City. Popular Music, 4, 151-163.
Quinn, B., Colombo, A., Lindström, K., McGillivray, D., & Smith, A. (2020). Festivals, public space and cultural inclusion: public policy insights. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(11-12), 1875-1893.
Samim, R., & Espiruz, M. A. (2015). The social life of modern street music as an urban phenomenon in Tehran: a qualitative research on the musicians of the new emerging genre of street music using life story strategy. Quarterly Journal of Cultural Studies and Communication (38). [In Persian]
Shojaee, D., & Partovi, P. (2015). Analysis of Factors Affecting the Creation and Promotion of Sociability in Public Spaces in Different Scales of Tehran City (Case studies: Two Neighborhoods and an Area in District 7 Tehran). Bagh-e nazar, 12(34), 93-108. [In Persian]
Simpson, P. (2016). Sonic affects and the production of space: ‘Music by handle’ and the politics of street music in Victorian London. cultural geographies, 24(1), 89-109.
van der Hoeven, A., & Hitters, E. (2019). The social and cultural values of live music: Sustaining urban live music ecologies. Cities, 90, 263-271.
van der Hoeven, A., & Hitters, E. (2020). The spatial value of live music: Performing, (re)developing and narrating urban spaces. Geoforum, 117, 154-164.
Wunderlich, F. M. (2013). Place-Temporality and Urban Place-Rhythms in Urban Analysis and Design: An Aesthetic Akin to Music. Journal of Urban Design, 18(3), 383-408.
Yang, W., & Kang, J. (2005). Soundscape and Sound Preferences in Urban Squares: A Case Study in Sheffield. Journal of Urban Design, 10(1), 61-80.