فضای باز دربرگیرندۀ بخشی از فعالیت های روزمره است که یکی از اصول طراحی در آن توجه به آسایش حرارتی و در نتیجه افزایش حضور افراد است که می تواند منجر به سرزندگی بیشتر فضاهای شهری گردد. در این محیط پوشش گیاهی و درختان نقش عمدهای در بهبود شرایط محیطی دارند. به نظر می رسد که افزایش یا تغییر الگوی میزان پوشش گیاهی در شهرها امری ضروری به نظر می رسد. حال در اینجا این سئوال مطرح میشود، الگوی متفاوت کاشت درخت تا چه میزان می تواند بر آسایش حرارتی افراد در فضای باز، تأثیرگذار باشد. تحقیق حاضر با هدف یافتن الگوی مناسب چیدمان درختان به منظور بهبود شرایط آسایش افراد در فضای باز با فرض این که تغییر الگوی چیدمان درختی، در شرایط آسایش حرارتی تأثیرگذار است، انجام گرفته است. به این منظور چهار نوع الگوی کاشت متفاوت، چهارتایی، ششتایی، ردیفی و پراکنده و شرایط بدون درخت با یکدیگر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. برای دستیابی به این منظور از نرمافزار انویمت مدل 4.4.5 استفاده شده است. برای اعتبارسنجی دادههای نرمافزار انویمت از مقایسه آن با دادههای محلی بهره گرفته شد. برای سنجش آسایش حرارتی الگوی متوسط نظرسنجی پیشبینی شده (PMV)، به عنوان یکی از مهمترین فاکتورهای تأثیرگذار بر آسایش حرارتی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این تحقیق در فضای باز اطراف یکی از مجتمعهای مسکونی در شهر تبریز در یکی از گرمترین روزهای سال، صورت گرفته است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که تغییر الگوی کاشت در بهبود شرایط منطقه تأثیرگذار است و الگوی کاشت ردیفی و پراکنده، مناسبترین الگو در جهت بهبود شرایط محیطی هستند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation of the effect of tree planting pattern on thermal comfort around residential blocks
- The research considered the effect of planting patterns on thermal comfort.
- The research addressed population increase and its effect on the morphology of cities.
- The results of comparison between the scenario without trees and the others demonstrate that the thermal comfort conditions exhibit great changes, and all the scenarios create better environmental conditions than the scenario without trees.
- The findings show that simply moving vegetation and trees without changing their nature and dimensions and the environment can improve comfort to some extent.
The increasing population has changed the morphology of cities and caused changes in the surrounding environmental conditions. Green space per capita is about 4.5 square meters in Iran, which is quite different from the global standard: 20 to 25 square meters per person (Haashemi et al., 2016). As a result, it seems necessary to increase the amount of greenery in cities. Lee et al. (2016) introduce shading and ventilation as the main factors in the improvement of thermal comfort conditions in the environment using trees. Vegetation reduces mean radiant temperature and improves environmental conditions through evaporation and daylight control and reflection (Salata et al., 2017). It plays a major role in the regulation of weather conditions by controlling and conducting wind flow and reducing wind speed and pressure (Perini et al., 2018).
Thermal comfort involves conditions of perception in which the surrounding environment is thermally satisfactory (Ashrae, 1997). In their review of the studies conducted in the field of thermal comfort in outdoor spaces, Johnson et al. have introduced the predicted survey average index as one of the most widely used indices among ones such as SET and UTCI. (Johansson et al., 2013). This index has been widely used in different regions with different climates (El-Bardisy et al., 2016; Salata et al., 2015; Abdi et al., 2020).
This model was designed by Fanger in 1970, considering factors such as air temperature, average radiant temperature, and relative humidity and two personal variables including clothing resistance and activity level, used as a composite index. This index specifies the coefficients that are measured according to Asher’s thermal scale and indicates the average thermal sensation of a large group of people in a certain space (Fanger, 1970). Therefore, considering and measuring this index causes other microclimatic factors to be taken into account and obtained through the following formulae:
The value of H can be measured directly and calculated using the following equation:
Moreover, previous research has pointed out the importance of planting patterns, trees, and vegetation and their impact on the environmental and microclimatic conditions of the region. The question that arises now is what kind of tree planting pattern, among the common ones, can have a better impact on the environment. In this study, therefore, the four common planting patterns of sextuple, quadruple, row, and scattered were selected to be applied in the same conditions and with the same number of trees.
In this research, the ENVI-met software was used because the output provides most of the parameters required for thermal comfort, such as Ta, Tmrt, and wind speed (Taleghani et al., 2015), and the results have been validated and used by researchers (Taleghani et al., 2018). For data measurement, five receptors were selected at the central points of the site. These receptors were located so as to be scattered in the site and be capable of expressing the general state thereof. Therefore, three receptors at the central points of the site and two located around the site were selected. Moreover, because the average human height between the positions of sitting and standing is 1.50 meters, the simulation measurement was carried out at this height. The environmental data and information on the receptors were extracted during the study hours (10 am to 9 pm), and the average value was calculated for the predicted survey average index.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of the data and figures extracted from the software demonstrates that a more uniform shade is created in the environment in the scattered pattern than in the others, and because the trees are scattered in most parts of the site, solar access is more limited there than in the other scenarios. Moreover, ventilation conditions are easier in the row pattern than in the scattered pattern, and the warm wind passes through the trees more easily there due to the regular arrangement. Therefore, the best planting pattern is the one that creates the more uniform shade and better ventilation conditions. However, the results of the scattered pattern are the same in most parts of the site, and there is only a little difference between them in some cases. As a result, the scattered and row patterns of tree planting are better than mass planting and concentrated in certain parts of the site.
The results of comparing the treeless scenario to the others demonstrate that the thermal comfort conditions change to a large extent, and all scenarios create better environmental conditions than the treeless state. Moreover, because the row pattern exhibits a lower average PMV for most receptors and most hours of the day, it is the best pattern. The sextuple pattern has high indices in most cases, and the quadruple pattern has a similar function to the sextuple one. Therefore, it can be concluded that the row and scattered patterns create better comfort conditions than the others. The results of this research can be used by architects, landscape designers, and urban designers. In this research, different patterns of trees have been compared, so future research can involve comparison of other plantings such as grass and shrubs and of the effects of different planting patterns.