هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر احساسات در فضاهای شهری و اولویتبندی آنها در فضای منتخب است. در این پژوهش ابتدا به مرور ادبیات موضوع پرداخته شده و سپس مدل سنجش احساسات در شهر ارائه شده که بر اساس آن میتوان احساسات را در سه لایه فیزیولوژیکی، ادراکی و رفتاری مورد سنجش قرار داده و از برآیند آن، پاسخ عاطفی کاربران در فضای شهری را بررسی نمود. نمونه موردی، بخشی از خیابان امامت در شهر مشهد است. روش پژوهش آمیخته بوده و برای جمعآوری دادهها در سطح بیولوژیکی، از دستگاه حسگر بیومتریک در سطح ادراکی، دادهها از طریق مصاحبه در حال پیادهروی جمعآوری شده و نیز در سطح رفتاری از سنجش سرعت پیادهروی استفاده شده است. دادههای حاصل بهصورت کمی، کیفی و اکتشافی تحلیل و عوامل مؤثر بر پاسخ عاطفی در محدوده مورد نظر شناسایی شدهاند. عوامل شناسایی شده با یکدیگر انطباق یافته و با استفاده از تحلیل اکتشافی، عوامل مؤثر بر پاسخ عاطفی در محدوده، اولویتبندی شدهاند. در این آزمون 20 نفر مشارکت داشتهاند که مسیری حدود یک کیلومتر را برای انجام پژوهش پیمودهاند. تحلیل دادهها نشان داد که بهطورکلی در این خیابان، پاسخ عاطفی کاربران نسبت به فضا مطلوب بوده است. براساس نتایج دادهها در سطح بیولوژیکی مسیر با کاراکتر غالب طبیعی، آرامش بیشتری را انتقال میدهد و مسیر با ترافیک و یا محیط یکنواخت تأثیر منفی در احساسات فرد دارد. براساس تحلیل دادههای ادراکی مشخص شد که پوشش گیاهی و خردهفروشی بیشترین تأثیر مثبت بر احساس را دارند. تحلیل سرعت حرکت آزمون شوندگان نشان داد که عواملی چون جذابیت، تنوع و آرامش منجربه کاهش سرعت و مکث برای لذت از فضا میشود. برآیند تحلیلها نشان داد که عواملی از جمله پوشش گیاهی، ترافیک سواره، کاربری و فعالیت، الگوهای رفتاری، ازدحام، آلودگی صوتی و... بر پاسخ عاطفی و در نتیجه بر احساس افراد از فضا تأثیرگذارند. اولویتبندی عوامل مؤثر بر پاسخ عاطفی، در نرمافزار اس.پی.اس.اس. انجام شد. بر این اساس عوامل غیرکالبدی، بیش از عوامل کالبدی بر پاسخ عاطفی تأثیر دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Measuring the Emotional Response of Users in Urban Spaces using Physiological-Perceptual Method
Introducing the methods of measuring emotions and emotional response in urban spaces and examining the advantages and disadvantages and the validity of each method.
Developing a mixed method for measuring emotions in urban spaces.
Identifying the physical and non-physical factors affecting users’ feelings in the urban space and their attraction and exclusion.
The effects of emotions on all of man’s daily decisions are undeniable. Using, residing in, and leaving an urban space pertain to the users’ emotions. Therefore, it is important to measure and evaluate the users’ emotions in urban spaces. The purpose of this research is to identify the factors affecting emotions in urban spaces and prioritize them in the selected space.
In the first step, the literature was reviewed, and a conceptual model for measuring emotional response was then presented. Based on this model, emotions can be measured in three layers: physiological, perceptual, and behavioral. The users’ affective response in the urban space can be investigated on that basis. This case study addresses a sequence of Emamat Street in the city of Mashhad, Iran.
The research was conducted based on a hybrid method. A biometric sensor (Empatica-E4) was used to collect data at the physiological level. Cognitive data were collected through walking interviews and videos. In addition, the speed of walking in the behavioral layer was measured. The resulting data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and the factors affecting the emotional response in this street were finally identified. The factors identified as a result of the analysis made in the above three layers were adapted to each other. Based on the exploratory analysis made through the SPSS software, the factors affecting the emotional response were prioritized. Twenty people participated in this survey and shared their emotional responses in the selected sequence of Emamat Street, which is one kilometer long.
Results and Discussion
The results demonstrated that the users’ emotional response was pleasant. According to the results of the data in the biological layer, it was found that the part with a dominant natural character conveys more peace. Moreover, the monotonous sections, the inactive environments of the street, and the part with heavy traffic cause unpleasant emotional responses. The analysis of perceptual data indicated that the presence of greenery and retails exhibits a greater effect on pleasant feelings. The analysis of movement speed shows that in environments involving attractiveness, there is a diverse, relaxed decrease in the speed of movement over the space and the desire to stay. Based on the results, it was found that factors such as greenery, traffic, land use and activity, behavioral patterns, crowd, and noise pollution have effects on the emotional response. In order to prioritize the factors affecting the emotional response in the above space, the data were analyzed in the physiological and cognitive layers in SPSS. The results were rather the same. It can also be concluded that among the factors affecting the emotional response, non-physical ones, such as natural elements, crowd, noise pollution, and land use and activity, have greater influences than physical factors like the type of flooring and facade. Among these, the greatest effects on the desired emotional response are exhibited by the type of activity including exercise, the presence of a group of elderly people, and the existing nature, including tall trees on the edge of the park, visible vegetation, and plants and decorative flowers present over the space.
This study was designed to identify the factors influencing the affective and behavioral response in urban spaces. We first explained the conceptual framework of the research by reviewing the literature on studies conducted in this area and examining the theories related to the emotional response in urban spaces, factors affecting emotions within the city, and methods of measuring the affective and behavioral response in the city. The research methodology was developed along with a practical test for assessing the affective and behavioral response and the experiment path given the available tools and methods used in previous projects and studies.
The results obtained from the analysis of the recorded data on the heart rates of the participants in the experiment, the speeds of their movement in each sequence, and their cognitive responses revealed that factors such as vegetation, vehicular traffic, land use and activity, behavioral patterns, crowdedness, and noise pollution are effective on the affective response, and, thereby, affect people’s senses. This research was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic; thus, the constraints ruling over urban spaces made it more difficult to perform the experiment with more participants. Obviously, conducting the experiment with a larger number of participants can bring about more reliable results. The reason for using a homogeneous age and social group was to decrease the probability of recording data outside the standard range. Naturally, doing research with a larger sample size would allow use of more diverse age groups. Based on the above findings, some suggestions are made for designing the space based on emotions, as follows.
- The vegetation and greenery space has a significant impact in the creation of a feeling of peace. The variety in the color and type of vegetation may also increase the pleasant feeling. However, if the vegetation reduces visibility, it would be effective in the creation of an unpleasant feeling.
- Water in the urban space beings about a feeling of naturalness and tranquility in users. However, in a space filled with crowd and noise pollution, the sound of water can increase noise pollution.
- The ground floor in urban spaces obviously affects the pedestrians’ perception more than other floors. Thus, the transparency of the wall, its beauty, variety, and coherence have prominent impacts in the creation of pleasant emotions.
- It is better to avoid building long, rigid, inactive walls. If there are such spaces, the ground for creating activity at certain intervals should be provided.
- The street-crossing areas should be designed in parts of the route with sufficient visibility for drivers and pedestrians; moreover, the pedestrian lanes need to be clear.
- When there is a potential for overcrowding, the movement and activity interference should be minimized to reduce the resulting crowdedness and arousal.
- The context for the emergence of desirable behavioral patterns such as exercise in the park should be provided in all directions, and a certain space for undesirable behaviors should be predicted as well.
We are grateful to all the persons for scientific consulting in this research paper.
This article is extracted from the first author's master thesis in titled "Identification of physical and non-physical factors affecting pedestrians' emotional response in urban streets and presenting solutions (Case study: Emamat street of Mashhad)" which was defended at the University of Art under supervision of Dr. Maryam Mohammadi.