نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

کیفیت طراحی فضاهای باز عمومی به عنوان یک قرارگاه رفتاری برای اوقات فراغت نقش مهمی در میزان رضایتمندی افراد دارد. احساس لذت و رضایتمندی زمانی اتفاق خواهد افتاد که فرد به حد نسبی از آسایش جسمی و روحی (آسایش محیطی) رسیده و فاقد از امور مقید کننده باشد. همچنین یکی دیگر از عوامل رضایتمندی، آسایش محیطی ناشی از سلسله مراتب اقلیمی است. به همین دلیل توجه به اقلیم در طراحی‌ها از اولویت‌های مهم در توسعه پایدار و طراحی پایدار است. با این حال، خرد اقلیم شهری از عواملی است که برای طراحی فضاهای شهری و فضاهای باز عمومی در راستای رسیدن به آسایش و رضایت محیطی ضروری است. در این راستا میدان شهدای شهر مشهد نیز به عنوان فضای باز عمومی و محصور توسط بناهای اداری و تجاری و ساختار کالبدی فضایی ویژه و همچنین درگیری با مسائل خرد اقلیم شهری، احتمالاً دچار ضعف آسایش محیطی برای شهروندان شده است. بنابراین با هدف بررسی میدان شهدا در راستای ایجاد آسایش محیطی به کمک خرد اقلیم شهری، پرسشنامه‌ای با سئوالات بسته (در قالب طیف لیکرت)  بر روی حجم نمونه 112 نفرآزمایش شد. در این راستا روش شناسی تحقیق مبتنی بر روش تحلیلی به کمک آمار استنباطی (آزمون تحلیل عاملی تأییدی) و تحلیل با نرم افزار اسکچاپ و در نهایت تحلیل راینو(پلاگین umi)، برای یافتن عوامل خرد اقلیمی مؤثر بر آسایش محیطی در میدان است. با توجه به تفکیک معیارهای متأثر از خرد اقلیم و تحلیل آنها و بررسی تأثیرشان بر آسایش محیطی، نتایج حاکی از آن است که عوامل محیطی و فرمی مانند شکل میدان و بناهای اطراف آن و جایگاه قرارگیری میدان، فضاهای عملکردی و فعالیتی موجود نظیر ساختمان های تجاری و اداری حاشیه میدان به عنوان اماکن پر مخاطب شهروندان و در نهایت آسایش حرارتی و کیفیت هوای درون میدان به عنوان مهم‌ترین زیرمعیارهای خرد اقلیمی تأثیرگذار بر آسایش محیطی از نظر شهروندان واقع در میدان شهدا محسوب شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Urban microclimates on the Environmental Comfort in Public open spaces (Shohada sq. in Mashhad)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Siamak Shakibaei 1
  • Sanaz saeedi 2

1 Department of Urbanism, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad university, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Department of Urbanism, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad university, Mashhad, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights

urban microclimate is one of the factors for public open spaces design in order to achieve environmental comfort.
Feelings of satisfaction will occur when a person has reached a relative level of physical and mental environmental comfort.
environmental and form factors such as shape of buildings, location, functional, microclimate comfort can be achieved through environmental comfort.

 
Introduction 
City and climate are two man-made and natural systems that have direct impacts on each other. Insofar as it concerns human comfort, climate is the result of factors such as sunlight, temperature and humidity, wind, and rainfall. The climate of any geographic location has particular suitable conditions, which have limitations in the field of urban planning and design at the same time.The quality of designing public open spaces as resorts for leisure has an important role in the satisfaction of individuals. A basic characteristic of a sustainable urban environment is its compatibility and harmony with the local climatic features. Therefore, it is a basic prerequisite for planning and designing urban spaces to recognize, understand, and control the climatic effects of urban areas, to which special attention needs to be made by urban planners and designers before implementing urban plans and projects. Man’s feeling of comfort in the environment undoubtedly affects the quality of his behavior and activity. Therefore, it has a great effect on the health of people’s bodies and souls to pay attention to their comfort zones in the design of different urban spaces. On the other hand, the range of activity and the extent of flexibility in an outdoor area depends to some extent on its microclimatic conditions, especially the conditions of sunlight and wind speed.
Theoretical Framework
Micro-climate pertains to areas that are surrounded by larger areas with specific climatic features. The combination of building design and the outdoor space between buildings in an urban area leads in some cases to micro-production of urban climates. As a result, the micro-climate is shaped by the climatic factors of the city, which vary over time under the influence of urban factors. With its positive effects on the environment, micro-climate can be used as a tool in urban planning and design. Feelings of pleasure and satisfaction will occur when a person reaches a relative level of physical and mental (environmental) comfort, and is free from limitations. Moreover, environmental comfort is a factor affecting satisfaction due to the climatic hierarchy. However, urban micro-climate is a factor needed in the design of urban spaces and public open spaces for achievement of environmental comfort and satisfaction.
Methodology
Shohada Square in the city of Mashhad, Iran has lost its environmental comfort as a public open space with a particular spatial structure surrounded by commercial and administrative buildings and faced with conflicts with urban micro-climatic issues. For investigation of Shohada Sq. for creation of environmental comfort aided by urban micro-climate, a questionnaire with closed questions (in the Likert scale) was tested on a sample of 112 people. The research methodology was based on the analytical method supplemented by inferential statistics (confirmatory factor analysis test), analysis with the Sketch software, and final rhino analysis (umi plugin) to demonstrate that the micro-climatic factors are in line with the comfort of the square.
Results and Discussion
The results of this study indicate that Shohada Square is a public open space with a great potential in terms of location. Its environmental comfort has been degraded severely for the citizens and even the pilgrims despite the rich historical background of this space, the profound historical dimensions it has given to the metropolis of Mashhad as a historical cultural document of the city, and its direct relationship with the Holy Shrine. This is due to the lack of a proper relationship between its surrounding construction and the urban micro-climates and the neglection of the field space itself with respect to the micro-climates. All this has turned the square into a dead space.Therefore, it should be stated that achievements can be made via environmental comfort on the basis of urban micro-climate and consideration and promotion of indicators such as the comfort level of the square, the effect of shadows on comfort, the leisure time spent at the square, the impact of the anciency of the square on the willingness to spend time there, the effect of land use on the willingness to spend time at the square, the impact of climate and space size on the willingness to spend time there, the lack of urban facilities to address the sunlight problem, and the desirability of the flooring .
Conclusion
In addition to the above, one can consider environmental and formal factors such as the location and shapes of the square and surrounding buildings, the existing functional and business spaces such as the commercial and administrative buildings on the periphery of the square, as a popular destination for the citizens, thermal comfort and indoor air quality, and micro-climate comfort, which can be achieved through environmental comfort.
Acknowledgment
This article has been extracted from a Master’s thesis in the field of Urban Design entitled Design of open public spaces with an emphasis on the effect of micro-urban climate on the environmental comfort of users: The case study of Shohada Square in Mashhad. It has been defended by the first author under the supervision of the second author at the Islamic Azad University of Mashhad.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public open space
  • Environmental Comfort
  • Urban micro-climate
  • Shohada Square
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