نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

4 استادیار گروه معماری دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

عدم تاب­آوری برخی از فضاهای معاصر و رهاسازی در برابر تحولات به­عنوان معضل جدی در ساختار شهرهای معاصر مطرح است که تبعات فراوانی را در عرصه حیات شهرها به ­دنبال داشته است. به ­نظر می­رسد عمر کوتاه فضاها به­واسطه همخوانی با زمینه و برخورداری از ویژگی­های محیطی قابل اصلاح و بهبود باشد تا در برخورد با اختلالات، تاب­آوری لازم را در پی داشته باشند. ازاین‌ رو هدف تحقیق حاضر که به ‌منظور ارتقای پایداری و هویت شهری انجام یافته، بررسی تأثیر مؤلفه­های زمینه­ای و قابلیت­های فضایی بر تاب­آوری فضایی بازار تاریخی تبریز است. مطالعه حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ ماهیت از نوع توصیفی_تحلیلی مبتنی بر تحلیل پرسشنامه­ها به­روش همبستگی است. در این مطالعه متغیرهای زمینه­ای و قابلیت­های فضایی به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل و متغیرهای تاب­آوری به­عنوان متغیرهای وابسته مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران تعداد 357 نفر از مراجعان بازار تاریخی تبریز به­عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب و ضریب آلفای کرونباخ برای سئوالات پرسشنامه 899/0 محاسبه شد که بیانگر پایایی مناسب ابزار تحقیق است. برای تحلیل داده­ها و سنجش وضعیت موجود از آزمون t مستقل و برای بررسی روابط همزمانی و میزان اثرگذاری میان متغیرها از آزمون همبستگی و رگرسیون استفاده شده است. یافته­های تحقیق نشان داد، رابطه معنی­داری بین مؤلفه­های زمینه­ای (کالبدی، تاریخی، فرهنگی و اقلیمی_محیطی) و قابلیت­های فضایی (انعطاف­پذیری، تطبیق­پذیری، تغییرپذیری و واکنش­پذیری) با تاب­آوری فضایی برقرار است و بیشترین اثرگذاری به­ترتیب مربوط به قابلیت­های تطبیق­پذیری و واکنش­پذیری و سپس مؤلفه­های اقلیمی و تاریخی زمینه­ای است؛ در حالی ­که قابلیت تطبیق­پذیری و زمینه اقلیمی دارای کمترین امتیاز هستند. همچنین یافته­ها حاکی از آن است که زمینه فرهنگی و اقلیمی از نظر میزان برخورداری از قابلیت‌های فضایی در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارند. در نتیجه بازار تاریخی تبریز از لحاظ تاب­آوری بیشتر تحت تأثیر قابلیت­های فضایی و سپس مؤلفه­های زمینه­­ای قرار دارد؛ یعنی علاوه بر توانایی­های فضایی باید به مؤلفه­های زمینه­ای نیز توجه گردد. تأکید توأم به هر دو ویژگی در کاهش آسیب­پذیری و افزایش تاب­آوری مؤثر واقع خواهد شد و رسیدن به تاب­آوری مستلزم همخوانی فضا با زمینه است که توانایی مقابله فضا با اختلالات، با ارتقای قابلیت فضایی از طریق پتانسیل ذاتی زمینه تحقق می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effect of Contextualism on Spatial Resilience in Tabriz Historical Bazaar with a Focus on Spatial Capabilities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Raheleh Abdollahi 1
  • Islam Karami 2
  • Ahad Nejad Ebrahini 3
  • Leila Rahimi 4

1 Department of Architecture, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and UrbanPlanning, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Faculty of Civil engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

 
Highlights
• The favorable situation of Tabriz Historic Bazaar was revealed in terms of resilience, contextualism and spatial capabilities.
• The relationship between contextual components and spatial capabilities with spatial resilience was explored.
• The greatest effect of adaptability and climatic context on resilience of Bazaar was revealed.
• Emphasis was discovered on paying attention to both factors of contextualism and spatial capabilities in achieving resilience.
 
1. Introduction
A new topic in the field of resilience, spatial resilience seeks space dynamism and vitality by preserving identity and function through focusing on particular features of space which provide an appropriate platform for possibility of vitality over time while maintaining efficiency and attendance. However, the existence of unused and abandoned spaces in cities and the importance of concern for the durability of spaces and their role in sustainability are among the leading challenges in metropolises, which seem to be modifiable and improvable due to their compatibility with the context and possession of environmental features that lead to the resilience required in addressing disorders. The purpose of the present study, designed to promote sustainability and urban identity, is to investigate the effects of contextualism and spatial capabilities on resilience in Tabriz Historic Bazaar.
2. Theoretical Framework
Spatial resilience concerns the possibility of different applications, adaptations, and capabilities and even the acceptance of changes without modification of identity. Therefore, the four components of flexibility, adaptability, variability, and reactivity were evaluated in a case study as spatial capabilities affecting the survival of spaces through analysis of the key concepts in different areas of resilience studies. On the other hand, the significance of the context in the discussion of spatial resilience can be considered for assessment of the success of spaces in achievement of the resilience required by the degree of their contextualism. The four physical, historical, cultural, and climatic components were examined in the case study as important contextual components affecting the survival of spaces. In other words, the effects of contextualism and spatial capability on spatial resilience were investigated through assessment of the relevant relationships.
3. Methodology
This applied descriptive-analytical research was based on the analysis of questionnaires through a correlation strategy. The contextual variables and spatial capabilities were assessed as independent variables, and spatial resilience was examined as a dependent variable. To specify the sample size using Cochran’s formula, 357 clients at Tabriz Historic Bazaar were selected to constitute the sample. For assessment of the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated as 0.899, which indicated the reliability of the research instrument. To analyze the data, the independent t-test was used to assess the current conditions, and correlation and regression tests were performed to examine the synchronous relationships between the variables.
 
4. Results and Discussion
The findings of the data analysis demonstrated that Tabriz Historic Bazaar was in favorable conditions in terms of resilience, contextualism, and spatial capabilities, and there were significant relationships between space resilience and the contextual components )physical, historical, cultural, and environmental-climatic) and spatial capabilities (flexibility, adaptability, variability, and reactivity) with coefficients of 0.773 and 0.834, respectively. There was also a significant relationship between contextualism and spatial capabilities with a coefficient of 0.767. The greatest impact on the resiliency of the bazaar space was associated among the four spatial capabilities to the adaptability and reactivity of the space with beta coefficients of 0.365 and 0.351, respectively, and among the four components of contextualism to the climatic and historical contexts with beta coefficients of 0.378 and 0.212, respectively. However, the lowest score was associated with the adaptability and climatic context of the space, and the highest with its flexibility and historical context. This indicated, on the one hand, that the capability of adapting to changes and new conditions and of adopting spontaneous response strategies against changes was most effective on the continuity of the space activity. On the other hand, adaptation to climatic conditions and environmental comfort and to native species and collective memories played a major role in maintenance of the space vitality over a long period of time. Given that previous research has emphasized the high degree of resilience due to the characteristics and capabilities of the environment, the present study was focused on concern for both contextual factors and spatial capabilities that are effective in the achievement of resilience and reduction of vulnerability to change. This was considered as the innovative aspect of the research.
Furthermore, the findings indicated that all the four contextual components had the appropriate spatial characteristics required to continue the activity due to the significant relationship between contextualism and spatial capabilities. However, the cultural and climatic contexts were in favorable conditions in terms of spatial capabilities.
 5. Conclusion
The results demonstrated that Tabriz Historic Bazaar was influenced more by spatial capabilities than by contextual components in terms of resilience. That is, contextual components must be taken into account in addition to spatial capabilities to enhance resilience. Emphasis on both features will be effective in reduction of vulnerability and enhancement of resilience, and achievement of resilience requires the alignment of space with the context, where the ability to cope with disorders is realized as the capability of the space is raised through its inherent potentials.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tabriz Historic Bazaar
  • contextualism
  • Resilience
  • spatial capability
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