بیتوجهی طراحان و معماران به کیفیت مجموعههای زیستی در جریان رشد شتابان شهرنشینی، ساکنان این مجموعهها را با مشکلات متعددی روبه رو نموده که از جمله مهمترین آنها، افت شدید کیفیت زندگی در این مجموعههاست. اهمیت این موضوع به حدی است که در بعضی موارد، زندگی در این مجتمعها، سلامت ساکنان آن را به مخاطره میاندازد. در همین ارتباط پژوهش حاضر، کیفیت معماری را به عنوان متغیر مستقل، کیفیت زندگی را به عنوان متغیر وابسته و کیفیت سلامت را به عنوان متغیر میانجی مد نظر قرار داده و سعی در تحلیل چگونگی ارتباط میان متغیرهای یادشده نموده است. بنابراین بر اساس ادبیات تحقیق، کیفیت سلامت با سه شاخص سلامت جسمانی، سلامت روانی و سلامت اجتماعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. کیفیت معماری نیز در قالب سه شاخص کیفیت محیطی، کیفیت ساختاری و کیفیت عملکردی مد نظر قرار گرفت و در نهایت کیفیت زندگی خود به عنوان یک مفهوم ثابت و چند جانبه تعریف گردید. گردآوری اطلاعات در حوزه کیفیت معماری و سلامت با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ساز و در ارتباط با کیفیت زندگی با استفاده از پرسشنامه استاندارد انجام گرفت. جامعه آماری در این تحقیق، ساکنان سه مجتمع اساتید، دراک و چوگان در شهر شیراز بودند که از نظر بافت اجتماعی ساکنان و نیز موقعیت جغرافیایی در شهر، در یک سطح قرار داشته ولی از نظر شاخصهای محیطی و معماری، دارای تفاوتهایی با یکدیگر بودند. تحقیق از نوع کمی _ کیفی و تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها با استفاده از آزمونهای آماری و نیز تحلیل محتوای مصاحبههای صورت گرفته از ساکنان انجام گرفته است. در انتها نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن بود که کیفیات معماری، تأثیر بسزایی در کیفیت زندگی ساکنان در مجتمعهای مسکونی دارد که این موضوع از طریق ارتقای سطوح مختلف سلامت ساکنان شکل میگیرد. به این ترتیب که کیفیت محیطی باعث ارتقای سلامت جسمانی شده، کیفیت ساختاری باعث ارتقای سلامت روانی شده و کیفیت عملکردی باعث ارتقای سلامت اجتماعی ساکنان میشود و در نهایت برآیند این موارد باعث ارتقای کیفیت زندگی در مجتمعهای مسکونی میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluating the role of architectural quality in improving the quality of life in residential complexes from the perspective of residents' health
- The physical health of people in residential complexes is directly related to the environmental quality of those complexes;
- The mental health of the residents in the residential complexes is directly related to the structural quality of the complexes;
- The social health of the residents in the residential complexes is directly related to the functional quality of the complexes;
- Providing health dimensions in residential complexes is directly related to the quality of life of residents.
Due to the inattention of designers and architectures to the quality of biological collections during the rapid growth of urbanization, the residents of these collections have faced many problems, the most important being the sharp decline in their quality of life. On the other hand, since home is the most important space in human life, and people spend most of their lives in residential environments, the quality of housing and its role in improvement of the quality of life is a significant issue. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the environmental quality of housing is related to the residents’ quality of life to analyze the mechanism of this relationship. Accordingly, the environmental quality of housing was considered as an independent variable and the quality of life as a dependent variable. In addition, given that the quality of housing is an objective issue, and the quality of life is a subjective issue, a mediating variable was needed with both objective and subjective aspects for analysis of the relationship between the two concepts. Therefore, the notion of health was considered as the mediating variable in this study, and an attempt was made to explain the relationship between the main variables through examination of the relationship between health and the dimensions of environmental quality, on the one hand, and its relationship with the quality of life, on the other.
Based on the objectives and hypotheses of the research, architectural quality was considered as an independent variable, quality of life as a dependent variable, and health dimensions as a mediating variable. According to the research literature, the quality of architecture was evaluated in the form of three indicators: environmental quality, structural quality, and functional quality. The quality of life was evaluated in the form of a psychological-semantic concept including satisfaction with residents’ various aspects of individual and social life. Finally, the dimensions of health were analyzed in the form of three aspects: physical, mental, and social health.
After a review of the literature and extraction of the indicators concerning each of the research variables, the theoretical framework of the research was presented. These indicators were examined as a case study using tools including observation, interview, and researcher-made questionnaires at three residential complexes in the city of Shiraz, Iran. A standard questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life. The quality of architecture was assessed using the above tools based on the indicators provided for that purpose. Finally, the residents’ health conditions were assessed using a researcher-made closed questionnaire. To specify the validity and reliability of the questionnaires, the items concerning each variable were first designed and provided to the experts. After a number of the items were corrected and deleted, the final questionnaire was designed in the form of a set of 26 items, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each group was obtained.
Results and Discussion
The eventual research results follow.
- The physical health of the people in the residential complexes was directly related to the environmental quality of the complexes.
- The mental health of the residents of the residential complexes was directly related to the structural quality of the complexes.
- The social health of the residents of the residential complexes was directly related to the functional quality of the complexes.
- Provision of health dimensions in the residential complexes was directly related to the residents’ quality of life.
1- The quality of architecture in residential spaces is directly related to improvement of the residents’ health conditions. In this regard, the following are significant:
-Improvement of the level of environmental quality promotes all aspects of health in housing, especially the residents’ physical health. This means that the most important factors ensuring the residents’ physical health include the provision of health, creation of environmental comfort in housing, and assurance of the residents’ safety, which lie in the field of environmental quality.
- Improvement of the level of structural quality in housing promotes mental health. Psychological peace is provided in the house through attention to the structural features of housing with respect to the method of spatial configuration, proper spatial zoning, provision of the residents with psychological security, creation of an appropriate visual space in the home environment, and the like. As a result, the residents’ mental health is improved at home.
- Improvement of the level of functional quality improves the residents’ social health in residential environments. We can refer to the capabilities of housing in provision of individual and social functions in the housing environment. are These capabilities include the establishment of collective spaces in the residential environment, creation of a space with functional diversity to perform a variety of activities in public spaces, generation of a spatial hierarchy, and individual and social privacy in space. Such solutions raise the possibility of increasing the interaction between neighbors, which leads to greater recognition among them, formation of the residents’ collective identity, and increase in the desire for social participation among them, which can ultimately contribute to social health.
2- The residents’ quality of health in residential complexes is directly related to the improvement of their quality of life.
This means that provision of all the three dimensions of health in residential environments increases the residents’ quality of life from all aspects. Therefore, if any of the dimensions of health is not provided in a residential environment, it can reduce the residents’ quality of life.
3- The quality of architecture in a residential space is directly related to the residents’ quality of life.
This issue, which is one of the main purposes of the present study, is quite obvious and understandable in light of the above. Thus, on the one hand, there is a two-way relationship between the quality of architecture and health dimensions; on the other hand, the residents’ quality of health in a residential complex is directly related to their quality of life there. Therefore, it can be stated that there is a direct relationship between the quality of architecture in a residential complex and the residents’ quality of life. Hence, improvement of the quality of architecture in a residential space increases different dimensions of the residents’ health, leading to an improvement in their quality of life.