نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای معماری، گروه معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

مکان‌های سوم  نمونه‌ای موفق از مکان‌های عمومی هستند که به دلیل ویژگی‌های خاص خود نقش مهمی در کیفیت زندگی شهری دارند. تأمین محیطی با توانایی شکل دهی و تقویت تعاملات اجتماعی یکی از نقش‌های مهم مکان‌ سوم است. هر چه جامعه تعاملات اجتماعی بیشتر و مؤثرتری داشته باشد، سالم­تر و پویاتر خواهد بود؛ بنابراین توجه به ایجاد و شکل­دهی اصولی مکان‌های سوم که کافه‌ها نمونه بارزی از آنها هستند، ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. نمونه‌ها براساس نظرسنجی آنلاین انتخاب شده‌اند. روش تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ شیوه، همبستگی است. شیوه جمع­آوری اطلاعات مشاهده، مصاحبه، پرسشنامه و منابع آرشیوی است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی هشت ویژگی عمومی بیان شده برای مکان‌های سوم در نمونه‌های مطالعاتی و واکاوی تأثیر آنها بر تعاملات اجتماعی شکل گرفته در بستر مورد مطالعه است. ابتدا به کمک منابع آرشیوی، مشاهده و نقشه­برداری رفتاری مکان ‌محور نمونه‌ها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. سپس از مدل معادلات ساختاری و ابزار پرسشنامه طراحی شده در طیف لیکرت و براساس یافته‌های پژوهش استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهند، حریم‌ها‌ و فواصل در تعاملات اجتماعی تأثیرگذارند. ویژگی‌های مکان‌های سوم در کافه‌های مورد مطالعه وجود دارند و بر تعاملات اجتماعی اثرگذارند اما میزان ظهور آنها متفاوت است. چهار ویژگی گفت­وگو به عنوان فعالیت اصلی، جو صمیمی، دسترسی و امکان سکونت و مشتری ثابت به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیر را در تعاملات اجتماعی دارند. سایر ویژگی‌ها با اثرگذاری بر این چهار ویژگی به صورت غیرمستقیم در تعاملات اجتماعی شکل گرفته در کافه‌های مورد مطالعه نقش دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of general characteristics of third places on social interactions. Case study: Cafes of Tabriz.

نویسندگان [English]

  • farnaz dibazar 1
  • Sahar Toofan 2
  • Siroors Jamali 2
  • nima valizadeh 2

1 Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights
The general characteristics of third places have been investigated using observation, behavior mapping, interview and structural equation modeling (SEM) methods.
The feature of conversation as the main activity has the greatest impact on social interactions in cafes.
Cafes are an example of a third place.
Cafes influence social interactions.
Individual privacy and distances affect social interactions.
 
Introduction
Third places provide a platform for social interactions, and have a particular position in public-sphere institutions and social interactions due to their special characteristics. The environment can strengthen or weaken these characteristics; therefore, it is necessary to consider the design and architecture of third places in order to enforce their positive features. The purpose of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cafés as third places in the studied samples and to analyze their impact on the social interactions formed at these places.
Theoretical Framework
Third places are one of the most important examples of the urban public sector that give meaning to the informal lives of citizens and lead to the restoration and creation of social interactions. Third places can serve as sources of protection and resilience for an individual, a family, and a community by creating social relationships. Moreover, individuals have an inherent need for social interaction, so they provide opportunities for that purpose. Such conditions are more likely offered at third places. A place turns into a third place from a service environment when it meets emotional and social needs as well as physical needs such as the need for eating and drinking. A concrete example of third places, cafés are of particular importance in the urban structure and human interactions. Such architectural spaces make it possible to imagine, think, and communicate due to their special features, described in Table 1, and their creation of pause spaces.
Methodology
Two general types of method have been used in this field research, quantitative and qualitative, including observation, behavior mapping, interviews, questionnaires, and archives, used for data collection. In the observation stage, things, people, and their reactions have been examined without interference with the environment. The observations have eventually led to behavioral mappings. Each sample has been examined using the passive observational method for three days in the periods of 10-12 in the morning and 6-8 in the evening. In the second stage, the interview method has been used, where attempts have been made to obtain more profound results through guidance of the conversations and provision of an understanding of the questions. Finally, structural equation modeling based on covariance has been used to investigate the general characteristics of third places and their effects on social interactions. The population has included all cafés in Tabriz, and the statistical sample has involved a total of 399 people.
Results and Discussion
The behavioral mapping indicated that large group of people and groups of two are more inclined to environments with clear privacy conditions. People tend to welcome spaces where their privacy is respected, while it is possible to establish appropriate communication with the environment as a whole. One way to create such environments is to separate spaces using transparent walls, while other considerations include distance, type of arrangement, material, and type of furniture. An examination of sample photos published by users demonstrates that most of the images concern these spaces, indicating their popularity among the audience. According to the analysis made of the responses, the main reason stated by 83% of the respondents for their presence in the café is to have chats. Attributes seem to play roles in strengthening and weakening each other as people express certain attributes to describe others. The results of the structural equation model demonstrate significant relationships between the variable of social interactions and four characteristics: conversation as the main activity, convenience and habitability, fixed customers, and a friendly atmosphere. The path coefficients of the variables indicate that a friendly atmosphere is 0.358% effective on social interactions, conversation as the main activity ‌is 0.378% effective, convenience and habitability is 0.100% effective, and fixed customers are 0.058% effective. The two characteristics of a friendly atmosphere and conversation as the main activity are most greatly affected by the parameter referred to as homes away from home, and the neutral framework parameter exhibits the greatest impacts on the two characteristics of convenience and habitability and fixed customers. Figure 5 shows the significant effects of these parameters on the four characteristics with confirmed effects on the social interactions formed in cafés.
Conclusion
As third places, cafés are influential in social interactions due to their special features.
All the characteristics of third places can be found in cafés, but they have different intensities and types of impact on each other and on the social interactions formed in cafés. Conversation as the main activity, a friendly atmosphere, convenience and habitability, and fixed customers directly affect these interactions, and other characteristics exhibit indirect effects as a result of the impacts of these four. Conversation is the most influential parameter in the formation of social interactions. The results of the interviews demonstrate that it is also one of the main reasons for people’s attendance of cafés. In fact, conversation is an element that affects both the primary factor and social interactions; for enhancement of social interactions, therefore, it is necessary to design spaces that can help meet the prerequisites for conversation to take shape between people in cafés. The general characteristics of third places are more likely to lead to social interactions among familiar groups. Adequate privacy and appropriate working hours are factors besides third-place characteristics that increase social interaction as the senses of place and belonging rise, because people communicate when they experience senses of security, intimacy, and peace at the same time.
Acknowledgment
This article is excerpted from the doctoral dissertation in the field of architecture entitled "Interaction between body, mind and architectural environment based on the Integral theory (Case study: Cafe-restaurants in Tabriz)." 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • third place
  • cafe
  • public place
  • social interactions
  • Human interactions
Agrawal, R. (2009). Threat of a. The Marketing Review, 9(3), 251-271.
Argyle, M., & Lu, L. (1990). The happiness of extraverts. Personality and individual differences, 11(10), 1011-1017.
Bagheri, Z. b., & Elmi, M. (2010). Social capital, social trust, pathological symptoms of social relations in iran.  Journal of sociology studies, 125-128[In Persian].
Behzadfar, M., & Tahmasebi, A. (2013). Recognition and assessment of influential elements on social interaction (strengthening and improving citizen communication in urban open spaces, model city of Sanandaj). The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar, 10(25), 17-28. [In Persian].
Beigi, J. (2019). Investigating the Role of Habitat in the Geography of Urban Crimes in the city of Miandoab. Motaleate Shahri, 8(31), 61-76. [In Persian].
Daneshpour, A., & Charkhchyan, M. (2007). Public spaces and factors affecting collective life. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-E Nazar, 4(7), 19-28.
Farash Khiabani, M., & Shahabian, P. (2019). Learning from Cafés: Cafes as “other spaces”. Motaleate Shahri, 8(30), 109-121. [In Persian]. .
Finlay, J., Esposito, M., Kim, M. H., Gomez-Lopez, I., & Clarke, P. (2019). Closure of ‘third places’? Exploring potential consequences for collective health and wellbeing. Health & place, 60, 102225.
Gehl, J. (1987). Life between buildings (Vol. 23). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Gifford, R. (2016). Research methods for environmental psychology. John Wiley & Sons.
Habibi, K., Alizadeh, H., Moradi, M. v., Valid, B. S., & Vafaee, S. (2012). Analyzing the social justice in spatial structure of Sanandaj city. 103-112. [In Persian].
Habibi, K., & Haghi, M. R. (2018). The Comparison of Iranian and Foreign Footpaths Based on ANP Method. Journal of Iranian Architecture & Urbanism, 9(1), 5-19. [In Persian].
Haghighi Boroojeni, S., Yazdanfar, S. A., & Behzadfar, M. (2015). The Role of Outdoor Cafes in Urban Regeneration Case of Isfahan Chahar Bagh Avenue. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 20(3), 31-42. [In Persian].
Hair Jr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). SEM: An introduction. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, 5(6), 629-686.
Hall, E. T. (2018). The hidden dimension (M. Tabibian, Trans.). Tehran, university of Tehran Press. [In Persian].
Hanks, L., Zhang, L., & Line, N. (2020). Perceived similarity in third places: Understanding the effect of place attachment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 86, 102455.
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications.
Jahangiri, A., Pakzad, J., & Andalib, A. (2017). Phenomenography explain the meanings of the concept of place attachment extraction of video self-portrait. Urban management, 16(47), 277-300. [In Persian].
Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2001). Social functions of emotions.
Lee, J.-E., & Severt, D. (2017). The role of hospitality service quality in third places for the elderly: An exploratory study. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 58(2), 214-221.
Lopes, P. N., Brackett, M. A., Nezlek, J. B., Schütz, A., Sellin, I., & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 30(8), 1018-1034.
Ma, N., Chau, H.-w., Zhou, J., & Noguchi, M. (2017). Structuring the Environmental Experience Design Research Framework through Selected Aged Care Facility Data Analyses in Victoria. Sustainability, 9(12), 2172.
Madani Ghahfarokhi, S. (2003). Sex Issues from Destruction of social capital. Women in Development & Politics, 1(5), 7-34. [In Persian].
Meshram, K., & O'Cass, A. (2018). Senior citizens' perspective on the value offerings of third place via customer to customer (C-2-C) engagement. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(2), 175-194.
Modiri, A., & Davoodi, E. (2017). A Study on the Role of Third Places in Zanjan's Social Life in the Period between Constitutional Revolution and Islamic Revolution, Case Study: Sabzeh Meydan District of Zanjan-Iran. Human Geography Research, 49(3), 553-570. [In Persian].
Noorian, F., & Aryan Khesal, F. (2018). Development of Site Selection Criteria for Urban Spaces Appropriate for Festivals, Carnivals and Outdoor Performances. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 11(23), 361-372.
Nourian, F., Khakpour, A., & Karbalaei Hosseini Ghiasvand, A. (2019). Evaluation of detailed plan proposed areas for urban green spaces by applying analytical network process (ANP) In Geographic Information System (GIS)(case study: Javadiyeh Area in Tehran 16 region). Urban Research and Planning Quarterly, 35(9), 97-110. [In Persian].
Oldenburg, R. (1991). [BOOK REVIEW] The great good place, cafes, coffee shops, community centers, beauty parlors, general stores, bars, hangouts and how they get you through the day. Social Forces, 69, 931-932.
Oldenburg, R., & Brissett, D. (1982). The third place. Qualitative sociology, 5(4), 265-284.
Pallasmaa, J. (2016). The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses (A. Fakhrkonandeh, Trans.; Vol. 2). Tehran, Nashr_cheshmeh. [In Persian].
Rosenbaum, M. S. (2006). Exploring the social supportive role of third places in consumers' lives. Journal of Service Research, 9(1), 59-72.
Samavati, S., & Ranjbar, E. (2019). Identifying factors affecting happiness in urban public space (case study: Pedestrian zone of historic part of Tehran). Motaleate Shahri, 8(29), 3-18. [In Persian].
Stahl, A. E., & Feigenson, L. (2014). Social knowledge facilitates chunking in infancy. Child development, 85(4), 1477-1490.
Wang, W., Zhornitsky, S., Li, C. S.-P., Zhang, S., Ide, J. S., Joormann, J., & Chiang-shan, R. L. (2019). Cerebral responses to self-initiated action during social interactions. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19(6), 1521-1535.
Williams, S. A., & Hipp, J. R. (2019). How great and how good?: Third places, neighbor interaction, and cohesion in the neighborhood context. Social science research, 77, 68-78.
Yin, J., Xu, H., Duan, J., & Shen, M. (2018). Object-based attention on social units: Visual selection of hands performing a social interaction. Psychological science, 29(7), 1040-1048.
Zarei, K., Shamlo, G., & Hamidimanesh, T. (2018). Explaining the Effective Role of Coffee House in the Formation of Coffee House Painting. Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies, 2(5), 143-159. .[In Persian].