مکانهای سوم نمونهای موفق از مکانهای عمومی هستند که به دلیل ویژگیهای خاص خود نقش مهمی در کیفیت زندگی شهری دارند. تأمین محیطی با توانایی شکل دهی و تقویت تعاملات اجتماعی یکی از نقشهای مهم مکان سوم است. هر چه جامعه تعاملات اجتماعی بیشتر و مؤثرتری داشته باشد، سالمتر و پویاتر خواهد بود؛ بنابراین توجه به ایجاد و شکلدهی اصولی مکانهای سوم که کافهها نمونه بارزی از آنها هستند، ضروری به نظر میرسد. نمونهها براساس نظرسنجی آنلاین انتخاب شدهاند. روش تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ شیوه، همبستگی است. شیوه جمعآوری اطلاعات مشاهده، مصاحبه، پرسشنامه و منابع آرشیوی است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی هشت ویژگی عمومی بیان شده برای مکانهای سوم در نمونههای مطالعاتی و واکاوی تأثیر آنها بر تعاملات اجتماعی شکل گرفته در بستر مورد مطالعه است. ابتدا به کمک منابع آرشیوی، مشاهده و نقشهبرداری رفتاری مکان محور نمونهها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. سپس از مدل معادلات ساختاری و ابزار پرسشنامه طراحی شده در طیف لیکرت و براساس یافتههای پژوهش استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان میدهند، حریمها و فواصل در تعاملات اجتماعی تأثیرگذارند. ویژگیهای مکانهای سوم در کافههای مورد مطالعه وجود دارند و بر تعاملات اجتماعی اثرگذارند اما میزان ظهور آنها متفاوت است. چهار ویژگی گفتوگو به عنوان فعالیت اصلی، جو صمیمی، دسترسی و امکان سکونت و مشتری ثابت به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیر را در تعاملات اجتماعی دارند. سایر ویژگیها با اثرگذاری بر این چهار ویژگی به صورت غیرمستقیم در تعاملات اجتماعی شکل گرفته در کافههای مورد مطالعه نقش دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of general characteristics of third places on social interactions. Case study: Cafes of Tabriz.
The general characteristics of third places have been investigated using observation, behavior mapping, interview and structural equation modeling (SEM) methods.
The feature of conversation as the main activity has the greatest impact on social interactions in cafes.
Cafes are an example of a third place.
Cafes influence social interactions.
Individual privacy and distances affect social interactions.
Third places provide a platform for social interactions, and have a particular position in public-sphere institutions and social interactions due to their special characteristics. The environment can strengthen or weaken these characteristics; therefore, it is necessary to consider the design and architecture of third places in order to enforce their positive features. The purpose of this study is to investigate the general characteristics of cafés as third places in the studied samples and to analyze their impact on the social interactions formed at these places.
Third places are one of the most important examples of the urban public sector that give meaning to the informal lives of citizens and lead to the restoration and creation of social interactions. Third places can serve as sources of protection and resilience for an individual, a family, and a community by creating social relationships. Moreover, individuals have an inherent need for social interaction, so they provide opportunities for that purpose. Such conditions are more likely offered at third places. A place turns into a third place from a service environment when it meets emotional and social needs as well as physical needs such as the need for eating and drinking. A concrete example of third places, cafés are of particular importance in the urban structure and human interactions. Such architectural spaces make it possible to imagine, think, and communicate due to their special features, described in Table 1, and their creation of pause spaces.
Two general types of method have been used in this field research, quantitative and qualitative, including observation, behavior mapping, interviews, questionnaires, and archives, used for data collection. In the observation stage, things, people, and their reactions have been examined without interference with the environment. The observations have eventually led to behavioral mappings. Each sample has been examined using the passive observational method for three days in the periods of 10-12 in the morning and 6-8 in the evening. In the second stage, the interview method has been used, where attempts have been made to obtain more profound results through guidance of the conversations and provision of an understanding of the questions. Finally, structural equation modeling based on covariance has been used to investigate the general characteristics of third places and their effects on social interactions. The population has included all cafés in Tabriz, and the statistical sample has involved a total of 399 people.
Results and Discussion
The behavioral mapping indicated that large group of people and groups of two are more inclined to environments with clear privacy conditions. People tend to welcome spaces where their privacy is respected, while it is possible to establish appropriate communication with the environment as a whole. One way to create such environments is to separate spaces using transparent walls, while other considerations include distance, type of arrangement, material, and type of furniture. An examination of sample photos published by users demonstrates that most of the images concern these spaces, indicating their popularity among the audience. According to the analysis made of the responses, the main reason stated by 83% of the respondents for their presence in the café is to have chats. Attributes seem to play roles in strengthening and weakening each other as people express certain attributes to describe others. The results of the structural equation model demonstrate significant relationships between the variable of social interactions and four characteristics: conversation as the main activity, convenience and habitability, fixed customers, and a friendly atmosphere. The path coefficients of the variables indicate that a friendly atmosphere is 0.358% effective on social interactions, conversation as the main activity is 0.378% effective, convenience and habitability is 0.100% effective, and fixed customers are 0.058% effective. The two characteristics of a friendly atmosphere and conversation as the main activity are most greatly affected by the parameter referred to as homes away from home, and the neutral framework parameter exhibits the greatest impacts on the two characteristics of convenience and habitability and fixed customers. Figure 5 shows the significant effects of these parameters on the four characteristics with confirmed effects on the social interactions formed in cafés.
As third places, cafés are influential in social interactions due to their special features.
All the characteristics of third places can be found in cafés, but they have different intensities and types of impact on each other and on the social interactions formed in cafés. Conversation as the main activity, a friendly atmosphere, convenience and habitability, and fixed customers directly affect these interactions, and other characteristics exhibit indirect effects as a result of the impacts of these four. Conversation is the most influential parameter in the formation of social interactions. The results of the interviews demonstrate that it is also one of the main reasons for people’s attendance of cafés. In fact, conversation is an element that affects both the primary factor and social interactions; for enhancement of social interactions, therefore, it is necessary to design spaces that can help meet the prerequisites for conversation to take shape between people in cafés. The general characteristics of third places are more likely to lead to social interactions among familiar groups. Adequate privacy and appropriate working hours are factors besides third-place characteristics that increase social interaction as the senses of place and belonging rise, because people communicate when they experience senses of security, intimacy, and peace at the same time.
This article is excerpted from the doctoral dissertation in the field of architecture entitled "Interaction between body, mind and architectural environment based on the Integral theory (Case study: Cafe-restaurants in Tabriz)."