نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی.

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی.

3 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مدیریت گردشگری، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی.

چکیده

گردشگری از بزرگترین، وسیع ترین و سریع ترین صنایع در حال رشد جهان است که منبع مهم افزایش درآمد، اشتغال و سرمایه در بسیاری از کشور هاست. توسعه گردشگری به عنوان پدیده فرهنگی، موجب می شود که فرصت کافی برای تبادل فرهنگی بین گردشگر و جامعه میزبان به وجود آید. بر این مبنا، آنان می توانند یکدیگر را بهتر درک کرده و به فرهنگ هم بیشتر احترام بگذارند. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، ارائه مدل توسعه گردشگری فرهنگی در استان کردستان است. پژوهش ماهیتاً کاربردی و روش پژوهش، آمیخته (کیفی و کمی) است. محقق به شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر توسعه گردشگری فرهنگی استان کردستان با استفاده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختار یافته (با نظرخواهی از اساتید و مدیران)و استفاده از اطلاعات پژوهشی می پرازد که از طریق پرسشنامه های موجود در زمینه گردشگری فرهنگی بر اساس تحقیقات گذشته، مبانی نظری و مطالعات کتابخانه ای، بررسی نتایج و عوامل شناسایی شده در زمینه گردشگری فرهنگی است. جامعه آماری در هر دو بخش نظری و کاربردی شامل الف) کلیه اعضای هیأت علمی دانشگاه ها (شامل اساتید مدیریت گردشگری استان کردستان و همچنین اساتید دانشگاه های استان های همجوار که در زمینه گردشگری فرهنگی حداقل یک مقاله پژوهشی داشتند)، ب) مدیران گردشگری و کارشناسان و صاحبنظران بازاریابی ادارات میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری در شهرستان های استان کردستان، ج) مدیران آژانس های گردشگری استان کردستان و د) گردشگران فرهنگی است. در مرحله اول گردآوری داده ها از طریق مصاحبه کیفی و در مرحله دوم با روش کمی و پرسشنامه ای صورت گرفت و در بخش کمی ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق پرسشنامه کتبی انجام ‌شد. سپس با استفاده از مفاهیم مشترک، مقوله ها ی هشت گانه مؤلفه پتانسیل شهری، شهروندان، تأثیر شهرهای مرزی، مدیریت رویدادها، گرایش به سایر مقاصد گردشگری، اقتصاد گردشگری، مدیریت دولتی و تبلیغات استخراج شد. نتایج پژوهش حکایت ازوضعیت مطلوب پتانسیل شهری، شهروندان، تأثیر شهرهای مرزی، مدیریت رویدادها، گرایش به سایر مقاصد گردشگری و اقتصاد گردشگری داشت؛ ولی مدیریت دولتی و تبلیغات در استان کردستان وضعیت مطلوبی نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A model for the development of cultural tourism in Kurdistan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi karoubi 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Taghavifard 2
  • soran ahmadizad 3

1 Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management & Accounting, Allameh Tabataba`i University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management & Accounting, Allameh Tabataba`i University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights
- The tourism development model is necessary due to the rapid growth of this industry, increasing income and employment in the countries of the world.
- As actors in tourism activities, local stakeholders play the greatest role in the sustainable development of cultural tourism.
- The eight common components of discussion include urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, tourism economics, government management, and advertising.
 
Introduction
Tourism is one of the largest, fastest industries in the world, which causes an increase in income, employment, and investment in many countries. As a cultural event, tourism development causes effective interactions between tourists and destinations to let them acknowledge and respect each other more. In fact, it provides an apportunity for establishment of more effective communications between nations and people. Cultural tourism is a topic addressed in the tourism industry, and there is a lot to do in that regard in a country like Iran, which is the origin of civilization and written history. Kurdistan Province is located in the west of Iran. Given its diverse cultural attractions, it should attract more cultural tourists through careful planning in the field of cultural tourism, and profit can be made by local people in return as cultural products are sold to tourists and promoted. This provides a good opportunity to take advantage of the attractions of this province, especially the cultural attractions. The aim of this research was to consider a model for development of cultural tourism in Kurdistan Province.
Theoretical Framework
The outbreak of the Coronavirus has almost devastated the tourism industry, and the images of empty streets and entertainment venues, blackouts, and closed shops in cities around the world are very strange and sometimes frightening. Of course, the statistics on the tourism industry in different countries are alternating. According to a global estimate, approximately three million jobs in the tourism and travel sectors have been eliminated or are expected to be lost soon. International travel revenues have fallen by more than $300 billion, and hotel occupancy has fallen sharply to about 25 percent. Experts and specialists in the field of tourism have different opinions about the future of travel and tourism, but the Coronavirus will definitely change the way of thinking, tourists’ behavior , and the amount of people’s travel around the world. However, the tourism industry is moving towards purposeful holidays in today’s world, and a new form of tourism along with cultural tourism involves travel that combines relaxation and satisfaction of mental needs . Cultural tourism can have particular effects in any region, such as rediscovery and celebration of local residents’ lost cultural privileges, recognition and development of regional awareness in spatial dimensions and cultural identity, promotion of a good sense of belonging to a culture, economic infrastructure development, in the long run, and enhancement of employment in an economy undergoing recession. The present developmental applied study aimed to describe the conditions or phenomena under study, and such a plan can be implemented only to help understand the existing conditions better or to assist the decision-making process.
Methodology
The present study is considered as applied, as it is possible to apply the results in the cultural tourist attraction program, and a mixed research method (qualitative and quantitative) was used therein. First, the researcher identified the factors affecting the development of cultural tourism in Kurdistan Province using the method of semi-structured interviews through opinion polls provided to professors and managers and research information obtained by questionnaires in the field of cultural tourism based on earlier research. The theoretical framework and library studies were used to examine the results and identify the factors effective in the field of cultural tourism. The population in both theoretical and practical sections included A) faculty members of universities, including professors of tourism management, in Kurdistan Province and professors of universities in neighboring provinces with expertise in the field and at least one research article in the field of cultural tourism with a scientific rank (scientific-research, scientific-development, ISI, and ISC), B) tourism managers, marketing experts, and specialsts in cultural heritage, handicrafts, and tourism in the cities of Kurdistan Province, C) managers of tourism agencies in Kurdistan Province, and d) cultural tourists.
Results and Discussion
Using common concepts, categories were extracted which included eight components: urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, tourism economy, government management, and advertising. The research results indicated the favorable conditions of urban potentials, citizens, impact of border cities, event management, orientation toward other tourism destinations, and tourism economy. However, government management and promotion in Kurdistan Province was not in favorable conditions. The results were examined through verification of eight hypotheses appropriate to the eight components.
Conclusion
From the final results of the analysis of available data and information, it can be inferred that Kurdistan Province exhibits a high capability (potentially) of attracting tourists and developing cultural tourism. However, a large part of the province has been abandoned and ignored due to improper advertising and provision of information, lack of infrastructural facilities, physically inadequate access routes, and relevant organizations’ insufficient supervision and planning to introduce the unique features and privileges of museums. This includes the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, which has failed to draw visitors’ attention to this tourist destination in line with expectations. Given the high potentials of Kurdistan Province in the field of cultural tourism development, the present study suggested that the province should be turned into a cultural province. Finally, it should be acknowledged that cultural tourism involves tourists’ behavior and their interaction with local residents. We must promote cultural development and increase respect for the cultures of other countries among the citizens of Kurdistan. Residents can play an important role in the formation of tourists’ perception of the destination.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • development
  • cultural tourism
  • Kurdistan Province
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