نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

3 دانشیار بازنشسته، موسسۀ عالی آموزش و پژوهش مدیریت و برنامه ‌ریزی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

شهر رشت، به عنوان نمونه یک شهر ایرانی، از افراد متنوع و گوناگون با سنین، جنسیت­ها، توانایی‌های جسمی و پیشینه‌های قومی مختلف تشکیل‌شده‌است. بسیاری از سازوکارهای برنامه‌ریزی شهری جهان با پذیرش تنوع و گوناگونی ساکنان شهری به سوی به‌کارگیری رویکردهای تنوع‌گرا و گنجاندن تنوع‌ها و تفاوت‌ها در فرایندهای برنامه‌ریزی شهری تغییرمسیر‌داده‌اند، اما سازوکار برنامه‌ریزی شهری کشور ایران و به تبع آن ‌شهر رشت در سایۀ تفکرات مدرنیسم همچنان با شهروندان به صورت نوعی واحد برخوردمی‌کنند و تفاوت‌های سنی، جنسیتی، قومی ‌‌نژادی، مذهبی، تفاوت در توانایی جسمی و در نتیجه تفاوت در نیازهای شهروندان در شهر را درنظرنمی‌گیرند. نظریه و عمل برنامه‌­ریزی به تازگی از ضرورت خدمات‌رسانی به طیف متنوعی از نیازها و ترجیحات آگاه‌تر ‌شده‌ و برنامه‌ریزی برای تنوع و تفاوت، تفسیری اجتماعی از برنامه‌ریزی برای شهرها و رویکردی است که نیازهای گروه‌های اجتماعی مختلف را درنظرمی‌گیرد. در کشورمان با خلأ مطالعات دانشگاهی در زمینۀ معرفی رویکرد برنامه­­ریزی برای تنوع و تفاوت و شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر به کارگیری و تحقق آن روبه روهستیم. از این رو هدف از این مطالعه معرفی اجمالی این رویکرد و شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر تحقق آن در شهر رشت بر مبنای دیدگاه­­های صاحب نظران برنامه­ریزی این شهر است. با توجه به نوع مسئله و جامعۀ آماری تحقیق از روش نظریۀ زمینه‌ای نظام­مند استفاده شده‌است. برای گردآوری داده­ها ابتدا پرسشنامۀ نیمه­ساختاریافته­ای طراحی و سپس با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری هدفمند از نوع گلوله­برفی با 10 نفر از صاحب نظران برنامه­ریزی این شهر مصاحبه­های عمیق انجام‌­شد. داده­های متنی حاصل از مصاحبه­‌ها با استفاده از فرایند کدگذاری و روش تحلیل سطر به سطر در نرم افزار مکس کیو دی اِی تحلیل شدند. درنهایت عوامل مؤثر بر تحقق الگوی برنامه­ریزی شهری تنوع­گرا در قالب 17 مقولۀ اصلی و 59 مقولۀ فرعی و روابط میان آنها شناسایی شدند و مدل پارادایمی الگوی برنامه­ریزی شهری تنوع­گرا با تأکید بر شرایط علّی، زمینه­ای، مداخله­گر، پیامدی و راهبردهای تحقق این الگو ارائه ­شد. نتایج نشان‌می­دهد طیف گسترده­ای از زیرساخت های اندیشه­ای، سیاستی، ابزاری، سازمانی، قانونی، مالی، آموزشی و فرهنگی ­اجتماعی در تحقق این رویکرد مؤثرند که شناسایی و تبیین آنها می­تواند راهنمای تصمیم‌گیری‌ها و اقدامات آیندۀ مراجع برنامه‌ریزی شهری کشورمان باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the effective factors on the realization of the diversity-oriented urban planning model in Rasht using the method of systematic grounded theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • fazilat tahari 1
  • mahin nastaran 2
  • Parviz Ejlali 3

1 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Great Institute of Education and Research in Management and Planning, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Highlights

Organizing influential factors in realizing the diversity-oriented approach in the form of causal, contextual, intervening, and consequential categories and strategies.
Classification of influential factors in realizing the diversity-oriented approach in intellectual, political, instrumental, organizational, legal, financial, educational, and social-cultural infrastructures.
Introducing grounded theory as a suitable method to understand all the influential factors in realizing the diversity-oriented approach in Rasht.

 
Introduction
As an Iranian city, Rasht is made up of diverse people of different ages, sexes, physical abilities, and ethnic backgrounds. Many of the world’s urban planning mechanisms have shifted to adopt diversity-oriented approaches and incorporate diversity and difference into urban planning processes by embracing the diversity of urban residents. However, the urban planning mechanism in Iran and the city of Rasht still treats citizens as the same thanks to modernist thoughts, disregarding the differences in age, sex, ethnicity, religion, and physical ability and, consequently, the differences in the citizens’ needs in the city. Planning theory and practice has recently become more conscious of the need to cater to diverse needs and preferences. Planning for diversity and difference is a social interpretation of planning for cities and an approach that considers the needs of different groups of people. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the realization of diversity-oriented urban planning in Rasht based on the viewpoints of planning experts in the city.
Theoretical Framework
Diversity refers to the increasingly wide range of social and demographic backgrounds of people who live and work in the city. The notion of diversity is now used as a label for policies addressing the heterogeneity of local populations. Certain differences give rise to discrimination and disadvantage, while others do not. Gender, race, disability, and age are critical issues at the root of much discrimination in the society. The critical point is that differences between diverse social groups in enjoyment of the opportunities of urban planning measures are continually reproduced by a range of processes and policies, rendering a number of people mainstream and others marginal. Planning for diversity is a social interpretation of planning for cities, and is an approach that considers different groups of people. There are two conceptual frames, or ways of regarding this profoundly social interpretation of planning for cities, that need to be deployed simultaneously. Firstly, planning for diversity is planning for the diverse range of people who live in and use the city. Secondly, planning the institutional settings to encourage equality of access across places is planning to reduce difference.
Methodology
One of the most efficient qualitative research methods, the grounded theory method was used to help achieve the research purpose; since the research problem is multifaceted, complex, and procedural, grounded theory can be an excellent way to provide an understanding of all the adequate conditions and factors. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed for data collection. Then, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten of the planning experts of this city. Sampling was carried out using a nonrandom sampling method called Snowball Purposive Sampling. In this research, a systematic approach known as grounded theory was applied. The systematic approach emphasizes the adoption of data analysis steps, including open coding, axial coding, selective coding, and the development of a logical model or a visual description of the generated theory. After the collection of textual interview data, analysis and coding began along with sampling. Specialized qualitative research software called Max QDA was used for that purpose. The main tasks of this software are to categorize data and connect the categories and to enable more sophisticated data analysis. In grounded theory, the researcher extracts subcategories, main categories, and core categories from the data, and continues the analysis.
Results and Discussion
Finally, the factors effective on the realization of the diversity-oriented urban planning approach were identified, including 17 main categories and 59 subcategories and the relationships between them. These factors include 1) reflection to govern the urban planning mechanism, 2) significant urban planning policies, 3) improvement of the approach applied to develop urban development plans, 4) modification of the contents of urban development plans, 5) public demand, 6) types of urban planning system, 7) national laws protecting the rights of various social groups, 8) law enforcement, 9) citizens’ cultural and social characteristics, 10) financial strength of municipalities, 11) organizational structure of the authority implementing the plans, 12) inter-organizational coordination, 13) education of urban planning students, 14) the knowledge and experience of the producers of urban development plans, 15) city council approvals, 16) needs assessment, 17) improvement of the quality of the urban environment/diversity-oriented urban environment. In the next step, we selected the category of applying and realizing the diversity-oriented approach from the open coding stage, placed it at the center of the process studied as the central phenomenon, and then related the other categories to it. These categories include causal conditions, strategies, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, and consequences. Next, a diagram called the coding pattern was drawn, which illustrates the relationships between causal conditions, strategies, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, and consequences. In the following step, we developed a theory of the relationships between categories in the axial coding pattern. This theory provides an abstract description of the process examined in this study, namely the application and realization of the diversity-oriented urban planning approach.
Conclusion
The results demonstrate that a wide range of intellectual, procedural, instrumental, organizational, legal, financial, educational, and socio-cultural infrastructures effectively realize this approach. Identification and explanation of these factors can guide the future decisions and practices of Iran’s urban planning authorities to help recognize diverse social groups, respond to their different needs in the city, and address discrimination in urban planning practices.
Acknowledgment
This article has been extracted from the first author’s doctoral dissertation, entitled Developing a Conceptual Model of the Diversity-Oriented Urban Planning Approach: Case study of Rasht, defended at the Art University of Isfahan under the supervision of the second and third authors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diversity-Oriented Urban Planning Approach
  • Social Group Diversity
  • Grounded Theory
  • Coding Process
  • Category
  • Rasht
Ahmadi, D., & Tasan-Kok, T. (2014). Urban policies on diversity in Toronto, Canada.
Andersen, H. T., Blach, V., Beckman, A. W., & Nielsen, R. S. (2014). Urban Policies on Diversity in Copenhagen, Denmark. Copenhagen: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg.
Beheshti, S. (2016). Tahlil-e Dade-Haye Kei-fi ba Narm Afzar-e Max QDA 11, Chap-e Avval [Qualitative data analysis with maxqda11 software]. Tehran: Ravesh Shenasan. [in Persian]
Beheshti, S, & Rezaayat, Gh. H. (2015). Tahlil-e Dade-Haye Kei-fi ba Narm Afzar-e N Vivo [Qualitative data analysis with NVivo software], Tehran: Agah. [in Persian]
Booth, C., Batty, E., Gilroy, R., Dargan, L., Thomas, H., Harris, N. R., & Imrie, R. (2004). Planning and Diversity: Research into Policies and Procedures.
Bridge, G., & Watson, S. (2011). The new Blackwell companion to the city. Wiley-Blackwell Oxford.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage publications.
Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Danaeifard, H., Emami, S. (2007). Strategies of Qualitative Research: A Reflection on Grounded Theory. Strategic Management Thought, 1(2), 69-97. [in Persian]
Danaeifard, H., Alvaani, M., Azar, A. (2012). Ravesh Shenaasi-e Pajouhesh-e Kei-fi dar Modiriat, Rouikardi Jame, [Qualitative research methodology in management: a comprehensive approach]. Tehran: Saffar Eshraaghi. [in Persian]
Elyaszadeh Moghaddam, N. (2011). Surveying and Feasibility of Replacement of Structural-strategic Model with Urban Comprehensive Planning Model in Iran. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 4(6), 35-48. [in Persian]
Fainstein, S. S. (2005). Cities and diversity: should we want it? Can we plan for it? Urban affairs review, 41(1), 3-19.
Fincher, R. (2003). Planning for cities of diversity, difference and encounter.
Fincher, R. (2007). Seeing Cities and their Planning with Diversity in Mind (Keynote Address). State of Australian Cities Research Network. Available at: http://apo. org. au/node/60203 (accessed 1 January 2010).
Fincher, R., & Iveson, K. (2008). Planning and diversity in the city: Redistribution, recognition and encounter. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction. Longman Publishing.
Graham, K. A., & Phillips, S. D. (2006). Another fine balance: Managing diversity in Canadian cities. Institute for Research on Public Policy.
Greater London Authority (2007). Planning for equality and diversity in London: supplementary planning guidance to the London Plan. Greater London Authority.
Higgins, M., Hague, C., Prior, A., McIntosh, S., Satsangi, M., Warren, F., . . . Netto, G. (2005). Diversity and Equality in Planning: A Good Practice Guide. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
Lee, J. (2001). A grounded theory: integration and internalization in ERP adoption and use. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Leicester City Council (2012), Summary of the equality and diversity strategy.
Levines, A. & Silver, C. (2014). Rahnama-ye Gam Be Gam-e Estefade az Narm Afzar-e Max QDA 2 dar Tahghigh-e Kei-fi [A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Max QDA 2 Software in Qualitative Research], (Abolfazl Ramezani). Tehran: Jame Shenasan. [in Persian]
Mohammad Pour, A. (2013). Ravesh-e Tahghigh-e Kei-fi Zed-e Ravesh, Mantegh va Tarh dar Ravesh Shenasi-e Kei-fi, Jeld-e Avval [Qualitative research method, counter-method, logic and design in qualitative research]. Tehran: Jame-e Shenasan. [in Persian]
Morse, J. M. (2001). Situating grounded theory within qualitative inquiry. Using grounded theory in nursing, 1-15.
Reeves, D. (2004). Planning for diversity: policy and planning in a world of difference. Routledge.
Rose, G. (1997). Situating knowledges: positionality, reflexivities and other tactics. Progress in human geography, 21(3), 305-320.
Schiller, M. (2016). European cities, municipal organizations and diversity: The new politics of difference. Springer.
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (2015). Mabani-e Pajouhesh-e Kei-fi, Fonoun va Marahel-e Tolid-e Nazarieh-e Zmineh-ey [Basics of qualitative research: techniques and stages of production of grounded theory], (Ebrahim Afshar), Tehran: Ney. [in Persian]
Tashakkori, A., Johnson, R. B., & Teddlie, C. (2020). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Sage publications.
Vahidi Borji, G. Nourian, F., Azizi, M. M. (2017). The Obstacles against the Success of Suggested Functions in Urban Development Projects in Iran. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Memary Va Shahrsazi, 22(1), 5-14. [in Persian]
Vertovec, S. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30 (6), 1024-1054. In.
Vertovec, S. (2012). “Diversity” and the social imaginary. European Journal of Sociology/Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 53(3), 287-312.
Vertovec, S. (2014). Routledge international handbook of diversity studies. Routledge.