نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 شهرداری مشهد (کارشناس)

2 استاد گروه آموزش محیط زیست دانشگاه پیام نور و رئیس کرسی یونسکو در آموزش محیط زیست

3 استادیار گروه آموزش محیط زیست دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

محیط زیست شهری مانند همه محیط‌هایی که زندگی در آنها جریان دارد از فعالیت‌های انسان تاثیر پذیرفته و از آن متاثر می‌گردد. هدف این پژوهش بررسی رفتارهای محیط زیستی شهری شهروندان 18 ساله و بالاتر شهر مشهد، است. در این پژوهش از رویکرد پژوهشی قیاسی برای تبیین و از پرسشنامه برای گرداوری داده استفاده شده است. در مبانی نظری مفاهیم شهروندی و سواد محیط زیستی بیان شد. نمونه ای با حجم 1000 نفر در شهر مشهد به روش احتمالی تصادفی سیستماتیک انتخاب شدند. در این مرحله آگاهی، دانش، دغدغه و رفتار محیط زیستی به عنوان ابعاد سواد محیط زیستی سنجیده شد و در قالب پرسشنامه الکترونیک، با مراجعه پرسشگران به درب منازل و گفتگوی حضوری تکمیل شد. آزمون فرضیه‌ها و تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات به کمک آزمون های آماری ناپارامتری انجام شد. نتایح مطالعه نشان داد که سواد محیط زیستی جامعه مورد مطالعه در ابعاد آگاهی و دانش در سطح بالایی است، در حالی که در ابعاد دغدغه و رفتار محیط زیستی نمره پاسخگویان تنها اندکی از حد متوسط بالاتر بود. همچنین، میان سواد محیط زیستی در همه ابعاد آن با متغیر تحصیلات رابطه معنادار در جهت مستقیم، اما ضعیف مشاهده شد. رفتار محیط زیستی جمعی مردان بیش از زنان، اما رفتار فردی دوستدار محیط زیست در میان زنان بیش از مردان است. هیچ کدام از شاخص‌های سواد محیط زیستی با سن رابطه نداشتند. نهایتاً این که بین متغیرهای آگاهی، دانش و دغدغه محیط زیستی با رفتار محیط زیستی رابطه معنادار در جهت مستقیم و با شدت ضعیف برقرار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating urban environmental behaviors with emphasis on the role of environmental literacy

نویسندگان [English]

  • pariya dorri 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Shobeiri 2
  • Mahdieh Rezaei 3

1 MASHHAD MUNICIPALITY

2 Department of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University and Head of UNESCO Chair on Environmental Education Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University

چکیده [English]

Introduction

The city of Mashhad is the second most populous city in Iran after Tehran. In cities like Mashhad, which has a population of nearly five million people, it faced with environmental problems such as overheating, waste management, noise and air pollution, traffic, water shortages and drought. Expressing environmental problems is both a concern and requires the cooperation of experts and the public to find solutions. Researchers come up with a variety of solutions to environmental problems, most of which are technological, but today, due to the high cost of these projects, they are interested in changing people's lifestyles and behavioral solutions, because environmental hazards are the result of human intervention. They can only be overcome by changing human attitudes and behaviors. Citizens with pro-environmental behaviors have the greatest responsibility for the urban environment, the preservation of its natural, historical and heritage values. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental literacy and its relationship with contextual factors and dimensions of citizen’s environmental literacy of Mashhad.

Methodology

A sample with a volume of 1000 people in the thirteen districts of Mashhad was selected by systematic random sampling method and the parameters such as, awareness, knowledge, concern and environmental behavior of citizens as dimensions of environmental literacy were measured. The data collection tool was a questionnaire which was completed by referring to the respondents. In this study, to assess the reliability of the instrument, pre-test questionnaire was completed with a sample of 50 people in order to eliminate possible defects and obtain the reliability of the instrument. Cronbach's alpha between 0.70 to 0.84 indicated the appropriate reliability of the questionnaire. Hypotheses were tested and data analysis was performed using correlation and comparison methods using SPSS software.

Findings

The results of this study showed that the environmental literacy of citizen is at a high level by awareness and knowledge, while in terms of environmental concern and behavior, the score of respondents was only slightly above average. The collective environmental behavior of men is greater than that of women, but the behavior of environmentally friendly individuals is greater among women than men. None of the indicators of environmental literacy was related to age and finally there was a significant relationship between environmental awareness, knowledge and concern with environmental behavior in a direct direction and with low intensity.

Discussion

In terms of behavior, the results of the study indicate a relatively weak tendency of citizens towards environmentally friendly behavior, especially in the public sphere. Although the study population is mentally concerned about the environment, this concern, for whatever reason, does not give them much energy and motivation. That is, when solving environmental problems turns to one's own responsibility, people do not take much responsibility for themselves in this context. Therefore, as mentioned in the case of environmental awareness, the practical orientation of individuals is lower compared to their emotional position in the field of environment. Therefore, efforts should be made to increase citizens' environmental literacy, and environmental education should be different for different age, occupation, education and gender groups.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental Behaviors
  • Environmental Literacy
  • Environmental Awareness
  • Environmental Knowledge
  • Environmental Concern
  • Mashhad