در سه دهه اخیر هنر عمومی و ظهور آن در فضاهای شهری توجه بسیاری از متخصصان از جمله طراحان و برنامهریزان شهری، معماران، روانشناسان، جامعهشناسان و سیاستمداران را به خود جلب کرده است. هرچند هنر عمومی به عنوان هنر تلفیق شده با فضای عمومی شهرها که در فضاهای سبز شهری، خیابانها، ساختمانهای عمومی و مجموعههای مسکونی قرار دارد، مفهوم جدیدی نیست اما توجه به رویکرد تعاملی بودن و کنش متقابل این نوع هنر با مردم استفادهکننده از فضای شهری کمتر در نظر گرفته شده است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر انواع هنر عمومی در فضاهای شهری بر ارتقای نشاط درک شده بانوان شهر اردبیل ارائه شده است. این تحقیق به لحاظ ماهیت موضوع از نوع بنیادی_توسعهای و به لحاظ نتایج از نوع پژوهشهای کاربردی است. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش توصیفی_تحلیلی است. دادههای مورد نیاز در این بررسی از طریق روشهای میدانی و کتابخانهای گردآوری شدهاند. جامعه آماری پژوهش بانوان(متخصص و غیرمتخصص هنر و معماری) در شهر اردبیل است که به روش نمونهگیری تصادفی ساده صورت گرفته است. برای تحلیل دادهها از نرم افزارspss و آزمون آماری(t) تک نمونهای استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان میدهد که هنر انتزاعی، هنر تعاملی_ ایستا و هنر ایستا(مجسمه و تندیس فرهنگی_ محلی) بیشترین تأثیر را بر نشاط بانوان داشته و تمایل به ایجاد و گسترش چنین المانهایی در فضای شهر اردبیل بیشتر احساس میگردد. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش با تلفیق هنرعمومی در فضای شهر اردبیل میتوان سرزندگی و کیفیت زندگی نیمی از قشر جامعه که بانوان هستند را بهبود بخشید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of various types of public art in urban spaces on the perceived vitality of women in Ardabil
- Beautification of the urban space using public art improves the quality of life.
- It removes defects and eliminates visual disturbances and urban landscape.
- Public arts bring vitality and health to women, who make up half of the society.
Art has always had a rational and improving function in human societies as one of the important pillars of education and training. A skilled artist can control many social anomalies and lead the society to a desirable and bright life. The perception of beauty is one of the human needs that the citizens in the city seek (Moeinifar, 2012:21). Today, cities have become places for doing repetitive activities and the machine life of citizens. In this regard, it is necessary to strengthen the points that have value in terms of urban facilities in the urban design for the benefit of the people, and also the factors and forces required for the entry and stopping of people in the space. Therefore, public art can be used to beautify and improve the visual quality of the city of Ardabil, eliminate architectural problems, beautify, optimize the urban environment and improve the quality of life of the city and its citizens, especially urban women.
To define public art, two words "art" and "public" should be discussed. The term public art has a very broad meaning and includes everything from urban sculptures to subway graffiti, but is often used as a collective term to cover any art that is not shown in official galleries or museums. Meanwhile, proper planning and special attention to women can be an important factor in urban development; Therefore, the active participation of women in the preparation and implementation of urban plans, laying the groundwork for the greater presence of women in urban spaces, improving the security of public spaces, paying attention to the protection of places where women are more present, the ability to increase visibility, openness and ease of access, increasing the strength of the transportation system at night is one of the things that can play a favorable role in creating suitable urban spaces for women. Joy and happiness are one of the most important human needs that prepare them to face the complexities and problems of today's world. Although many people believe that this art is internal and the person himself should create happiness in his life, but since the city space establishes the most connection with people and the living environment,
The current research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. According to the nature of the study, the method of data collection is a survey and a library using a questionnaire with the women of Ardabil city. Cronbach's alpha was used to confirm the validity of the questionnaire, considering that little research has been done in this field, according to professors and specialists, and to check the reliability of the questionnaire. The total alpha coefficient was equal to (.906), which shows the high reliability of the questionnaire. The statistical population in the current research is women (experts and non-experts in art and architecture) in Ardabil who are between 20-35 years old (57,913). To estimate the sample size, Cochran's formula was used, and the number of 381 samples was estimated, of which 185 healthy questionnaires were distributed and completed among the statistical population by a simple random method. In this research, the questionnaire measures the research variables, which consists of 41 questions, divided into two sections, public arts and interactive arts, and one image from each type of art, similar to what was shown in the introduction section of public arts, was selected and An online questionnaire format, in which the participants were asked to express the level of joy they felt after watching that artwork in urban spaces according to the 5-point Likert scale, was designed and sent to the target community through virtual space applications. It should be noted that the questions were evaluated through a 5-option Likert scale. In order to analyze the data in the descriptive statistics section, Excel, Spss software and for inferential statistics in which the relationships between variables are examined based on the purpose of the research, the statistical test with inclusion (one-sample T) was used.
Results and Discussion
To investigate the impact of public art on the perceived vitality of women in Ardabil city and to answer the research question of which type of public art has a greater impact on improving the perceived vitality of women in urban spaces, a one-sample t-test was used.The results of the single-sample t-test showed that abstract art had the highest average score (4.71), followed by the vitality created by this item (4.60), and the desire to create abstract art in the urban space from the point of view of women (4.63). This means that abstract art was the most popular type of public art among the women surveyed.In the next ranks, art embedded in space and applied art had an average score of (4.25), followed by art appropriate to the site and natural environment with an average score of (4.18), artistry (sculptures of celebrities) with an average score of (4.16), and finally the musical fountain with an average score of (4.03).These results suggest that women in Ardabil city perceive abstract art as the most vitalizing type of public art. This may be because abstract art is open to interpretation and can be seen in many different ways, which allows women to connect with it on a personal level. Additionally, abstract art can be seen as a form of escapism, which can be appealing to women who are looking for a way to relax and de-stress.
The city of Ardabil has a lot of potential to create public art that is both visually appealing and revitalizing for women. However, the current state of public art in the city is lacking. There are only a small number of famous statues and some examples of murals and lighting. This is a missed opportunity to create a more vibrant and inviting urban environment for women. The managers and planners of the municipality and related bodies should pay more attention to the vitality and vitality of not only the women of the city of Ardabil, but also all sections of the society. They should commission more public art that is designed to appeal to women and other marginalized groups. This would help to create a more inclusive and equitable urban environment for everyone.In addition to commissioning more public art, the municipality should also take steps to improve the security of public spaces. This would make women feel more comfortable and safe in the city, which would encourage them to spend more time outdoors and enjoy the public art. By taking these steps, the municipality can create a more vibrant and inviting urban environment for women and all residents of Ardabil city.