نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران .

3 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران.

4 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، دانشکده بهداشت و علوم زیستی، دانشگاه نورثامبریا، نیوکاسل آپون تاین، بریتانیا.

چکیده

باوجود نقش معنادار تحرک و فعالیت فیزیکی کودکان در سلامت و بهزیستی آنان، این نوع فعالیت‌ها در همسایگی­ها و محلات مسکونی رو به کاهش است. یکی از راه‌های جبران این مسئله، تقویت آن دسته از ویژگی‌های محیطی مورد نظر کودکان است که آنان را به تحرک و فعالیت فیزیکی در محله‌هایشان ترغیب می‌کنند. بدین‌منظور، این پژوهش نظرات 450 کودک نُه تا 13 سال (8/43 درصد دختر و 2/56 درصد پسر) را درباره مجموعه‌ای از این ویژگی‌ها در شهر مشهد جمع‌آوری کرده است. در نهایت پاسخ‌های کودکان به‌کمک تحلیل عامل اکتشافی دسته‌بندی و در قالب یک مدل توسعه یافت. این مدل نشان می­دهد که تحرک­ و فعالیت فیزیکی کودکان در محله­‌هایشان می‌تواند متأثر از هفت عامل زیر باشد: 1) اجازه والدین برای حضور بیرون از خانه، 2) مسیر پیاده امن و لذت‌بخش به‌ویژه از خانه به مدرسه و برعکس، 3) امنیت اجتماعی به‌کمک فضاهای شاد و اجتماع‌پذیر، 4) قابلیت‌های محیطی قابل استفاده در شب و روز، 5) خوانایی به کمک مغازه‌ها در تراز همکف درکنار ساختمان‌های نشانه‌ای، 6) محیط متنوع و طبیعی برای کاوشگری و ماجراجویی و 7) ایمنی هنگام حرکت در فضا و بازی با وسایل. نکته مشترک این هفت عامل، تقاضای مکرر برای انجام فعالیت‌های بازی‌وار حین فعالیت فیزیکی (تفریح، شادابی و بازی با دوستان) بود. سیاست‌گذاران حوزه سلامت و برنامه‌ریزان و طراحان شهری زمانی می‌توانند به خلق یک محله حامی تحرک و فعالیت فیزیکی کودکان نزدیک شوند که شرایط لذت‌بخشی را برای حضور و فعالیت مستقل آنان در فضاهای باز آن محله‌ فراهم کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental characteristics affecting children's physical activity and mobility in their neighborhoods from their perspective; A Case study of Mashhad City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Toktam Roshandel 1
  • Bakhtiar Bahrami 2
  • Mehdi Saidi 3
  • Goran Erfani 4

1 Department of Urban Planning & Design, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning & Design, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 Department of Urban Planning & Design, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

چکیده [English]

Highlights:
 
Parents' consent emerges as a highly influential factor.
Children require a secure and enjoyable pedestrian route from home to school.
Environmental affordances usable during both day and night play a pivotal role.
 
Introduction:
Children's physical activity and mobility are pivotal for their overall health. This study, conducted in Mashhad City, Iran, explores children's perspectives on environmental characteristics that impact physical mobility and activity.
Theoretical Framework:
Utilizing a theoretical framework comprising 28 measures, this research aims to unveil the environmental features within neighborhoods contributing to the improvement of children's physical mobility and activity.
Methodology:
To accomplish this, the present study collected the perspectives of 450 children aged 9 to 13 (43.8% girls and 56.2% boys) regarding a specific set of these attributes within Mashhad City, Iran. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, a model was constructed based on the children's responses to the survey measures.
Results and Discussion:
This model identifies seven factors and 24 measures influencing the mobility and physical activity of children in their neighborhoods:
 
Parents' Approval:
 
Encompasses measures associated with "parents' permission and concern" and reflects "children's desire for independence and agency." Results suggest that parental concern about the autonomous presence of their children in neighborhood spaces significantly inhibits the children's mobility and independent activities.
 
Walking Path:
 
Associated with measures conveying the concepts of "optimal and joyful mobility on paths," this factor emphasizes features like adequate width and appropriate flooring. The potential for 'playing along the route from home to school' is crucial for children's mobility. According to children, this pathway serves not only as a route for the essential journey to school but also should provide opportunities for social and optional activities, including play and enjoyment.
 
Social Security:
 
Linked to measures reflecting 'the sense of security regarding strangers and bullies' in neighborhoods. An interesting result is the association of "creating a pleasant atmosphere such as colored sidewalks" with social security. Children believe that the use of specific colors on sidewalks not only provides a fun atmosphere but also establishes spaces for local socialization, consequently reducing the threat of bullying and outsiders.
 
Environmental Affordance:
 
Associated with activities reflecting children’s physical abilities, such as climbing trees and running in open spaces without obstacles. The results indicate that children test these capabilities through movement and exploration of their surroundings. Additionally, the inclusion of "night lighting" as a measure in this factor suggests a preference among children for exploratory play during the night.
 
Legibility:
 
Aligned with Lynch's theory of legibility, this factor involves measures related to way-finding by architectural elements. The findings indicate that children use 'buildings' and 'stores on the ground floor' as landmarks for navigation in their neighborhoods.
 
Diverse Environment for Exploration:
 
Associated with measures representing attractive routes, various play equipment, and nature connectedness. Children's positive assessment of the existence of winding paths in the neighborhood indicates that engaging in exploratory activities along these paths can increase their mobility in their community. Furthermore, integrating a variety of natural elements and play equipment in their neighborhood can enhance children's movement and exploration, making the experience deeper and more enjoyable.
 
Mobility Safety:
 
The final factor is associated with measures indicating safe mobility in neighborhoods. In addition to the fear of a car accident, children's desire for age/gender-appropriate play equipment highlights their concern for their physical safety. The results indicate that inappropriate play equipment and car traffic have the least impact on children's mobility in their neighborhoods.
 
 
Conclusion:
Interventions targeting these factors can significantly enhance children's mobility experiences, promoting not only physical activity but also social interaction and a deeper connection with their surroundings. The recurring theme of children's desire for playful activities emphasizes a fundamental need for quality movement and physical activities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Children
  • Physical Activity
  • Mobility
  • Neighborhood
  • Environmental Characteristics
  • Interaction with Environment
  • Mashhad
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