نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران.

چکیده

برنامه‌ریزی فضایی شهری کنشی جمعی مربوط به تصمیم‌های مرتبط با به‌کارگیری اجتماعی زمین و یک عمل اجتماعی است؛ به معنای عملی که از راه هم‌رأیی به وسیله دولت منتخب مردم انجام می‌گیرد. بنابراین دولت به مثابه نهادی انگاشته می‌شود که در پی تحقق منفعت عمومی و جبران شکست‌های بازار از طریق قدرت مشروع است. اما سئوال اساسی این است که آیا واقعاً دولت به عنوان یک کل، خیرخواه در برنامه‌ریزی فضایی شهری تنها بر مبنای منفعت عمومی شهر عمل می‌کند؟ هدف این پژوهش پاسخ به این پرسش بنیادی از دریچه نظریه انتخاب عمومی است که با تمرکز بر نهاد دولت برای تحلیل و درک پیامدهای حاصل از تعامل عناصر موجود در آن، بر شباهت‌های انتخاب افراد در تصمیم‏های بازاری و غیر‌بازاری تأکید دارد. برای این منظور با استفاده از روش‌شناسی مربوط به تحلیل‌های کیفی و پس از دستیابی به شاخص‌های اصلی مرتبط با هر یک از مؤلفه‌های مربوطه، مبتنی بر داده‌های استخراج شده از نظر خبرگان این حوزه و کمی‌سازی این داده‌ها با استفاده از طیف لیکرت، با بهره‌گیری از مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری حداقل مربعات جزئی در نرم­افزار اسمارت پی‌ال‌اس سعی می‌شود، میزان اثرگذاری مؤلفه‌های نظریه انتخاب عمومی بر فضای تصمیم‌سازی و تصمیم‌گیری برنامه‌ریزی کلانشهر تهران مورد تحلیل قرار گیرد. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش و ضرایب مسیر مؤلفه‌های پیگیری منافع فردی، رانت‌جویی و منافع سیاسی بر تصمیم‌سازی و تصمیم‌گیری افراد در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی فضایی کلانشهر تهران تأثیر معنی‌دار و منفی دارند. همچنین محاسبه و تحلیل شاخص‌های برازش نشان‌دهنده مناسب بودن مدل اندازه‌گیری و ساختاری الگوی مفهومی پژوهش است. بر این اساس در پایان راهکارهایی برای اصلاح وضعیت حاضر در راستای تأمین بهتر منفعت عمومی و کاهش تضادهای موجود پیشنهاد شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

An analysis of the conflict of interest in the State in charge of urban spatial planning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Hosseinabadi 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan 2

1 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

 
Highlights

Applying the theory of public choice in the discipline of urban planning of Iran.
Interdisciplinary analysis of conflicts of interest in state institution as the responsible of urban planning in Tehran metropolitan.
Estimating the impact of public choice theory component on decision-maker and decision-taker in urban planning of Tehran metropolitan.
Demonstrating the negative impact of self-interests, rent-seeking, and political interests on choices made by decision-makers.

 

Introduction

Urban space planning is a collective social action concerning decisions on the social use of land; i.e. an action performed by the people’s elected state. Thus, the state is seen as an institution that seeks to realize the public interest and compensate for market failure through legitimate power. However, the fundamental question is whether the state actually functions as a benevolent institution in urban space planning based solely on the public interest of the city. The purpose of this study is to provide an answer to this fundamental question from the perspective of Public Choice Theory, which is focused on the state for analysis and comprehension of the consequences of the interaction between its elements, emphasizing the similarities between people’s choices in market and non-market decisions.
The urban planning system in Iran is one of the most complex, comprehensive land use regulation systems with a focus on the government. The conditions of urban development and urban planning in Iranian cities, including the Tehran metropolitan area, well demonstrates urban-planners’ and decision-makers’ lack of concern for the public interests regarding the city in some cases. In an interdisciplinary analysis using components from the theory of positive public choice, this research addresses the decision space in urban planning for the Tehran metropolitan area, and presents solutions to improve the conditions from the normative aspect of the theory.

Theoretical Framework

The state has tried to provide urban public benefits and services through urban planning, and the public interest is used in fact to justify and advocate urban planning interventions. From an ethical point of view, the biggest problem encountered by planners is to adopt the best approach in response to decision-makers and the best action for the public interest, as they are always pressured by government change on the one hand and social change on the other. The public interest has always been important in urban space planning despite its controversial entity. It can play three major roles in that regard: those of legitimizing planning as a state activity, of a norm for planning and professional ethics, and of a criterion for evaluation of planning and plans.
Public choice theory focuses on planning as a political activity by identifying state influence and market failure. According to the theory, the state is not regarded as a single entity, but a group of individuals who pursue their personal and group interests, which makes up an important failure of the state. Stakeholders, political organizations, and social classes impose pressure on the state to pursue their own interests, and this can severely affect the efficiency of the state.
The main purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of the decision space in spatial planning of the Tehran metropolitan area given the components emphasized in the public choice approach and concern for personal and political interests and rent-seeking in choices made by decision-makers.

Methodology

The methodology of qualitative analysis was first reviewed, and the main indicators concerning each of the relevant components were then obtained based on the data extracted by experts in the field and quantified using the Likert scale. Attempts were made to analyze the impacts of the components of public choice theory on the decision-making carried out for the Tehran metropolitan area planning through application of Structural Equation Modeling using Partial Least Squares in the SmartPLS software.

Results and Discussion

Since the value of the t-statistic was greater than 1.96, it can be stated that the factors of personal and political interests and rent-seeking had significant negative effects on decision-making in the spatial planning process in the Tehran metropolitan area. The values ​​concerning the paths in the final research model indicated that concern for personal interest pursued with the cost-benefit approach accounted for 21.5% of the changes made in decision-making in urban planning, rent-seeking explained 36.5%, and political interests explained 31.2%. Therefore, the hypotheses proposed in the research were retained.
The results of the research demonstrated that the factors with the severest negative effects on the components under examination and decision-making in the process of urban space planning of the Tehran metropolitan area include urban planners’ lack of concern for the feasibility and functionality of plans, collusion between planners, city managers, and landowners to determine and change land use, special privileges granted beyond personal competence to specific individuals and groups, lack of transparency and information, influence of those in power and wealth in the urban planning structure, and  urban managers’ prioritization of attempts to maintain their statuses and protect the established power structure, etc.

Conclusion

The findings of this study, conducted among experts aware of the spatial planning system of the Tehran metropolitan area, indicated that the components of public choice theory, including concern for personal and political interests and rent-seeking, have significant negative impacts on decision-making in the spatial planning process. In other words, although it is assumed that the public interest of the city should be considered in the process of urban space planning, other incentives are influential in decision-making, and there is a conflict of interest in practice.
 
Keywords: state, urban space planning, public choice theory, public interest.
 
Acknowledgment
This article has been extracted from a Ph.D. thesis on urban planning entitled The Role of State and Market in Urban Spatial Development Planning of Iran, defended by the first author under supervision of the second at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • state
  • urban space planning
  • public choice theory
  • public interest
Akbari, N. (2017). Eghtesad-e shahri [Urban Economics]. Tehran: Samt. [in Persian]
Alexander, E. R. (2002). Public Interest in Planning: From Legitimation to Substantive Plan Evaluation, Planning Theory, 1(3), 226–249.
Alexander, E. R. (2010) Planning, Policy and the Public Interest: Planning Regimes and Planners’ Ethics and Practices. International Planning Studies, 15(2), 143–162.
Allmendinger, Ph. (2012). Planning Theory (Translated by Elham Bahmin Teymouri). Tehran: Azarakhsh. [in Persian]
Amiri, H. (2012). Eqtesad-e Bakhsh-e Omumi [Economics of Public Sector]. Tehran: Samat. [in Persian]
Ashuri, D. (1998). Daneshname-ye Siasi [Political Encyclopedia]. Tehran: Morvarid. [in Persian]
Bollens, S. A., (2002). Urban Planning and Intergroup Conflict: Confronting a Fractured Public Interest. Journal of the American Planning Association, 68(1), 22-42.
Buchanan, J. (1997). Public Finance and Public Choice; in Samuel Baker & Cotherine Elliot;"Reading in Public Finance" International Thomson Publishing; pp. 163-80.
Buchanan, J. (2010). Fundamentals of Economic Policy (Translated by Ali Sarvazim). Tehran: Asar-e Andisheh. [in Persian]
Capurasso, J. and Levine, D. (2013). Theories of Political Economy (Translated by Mahmoud Abdullahzadeh). Tehran: Sales. [in Persian]
Daneshpour, Z. (2008). Moghadame bar Nazarei-ye Barnamerizi [An Introduction to Planning Theories]. Tehran: Daneshgah-e Shahid Beheshti. [in Persian]
Davari, A. and Rezazadeh, A. (2014). Moadelat-e Sakhtari ba Narmafzar-e Smart PLS [Structural Equations with Smart PLS Software]. Tehran: Jahad-e Daneshgahi. [in Persian]
Downs A. (1967), Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown and company.
Dunleavy P. and O'Leary B. (1987). Theories of the State: The Politics of Liberal Democracy. Red Globe Press.
Friedmann, J. (1963). Regional planning as a Field of study. Journal of the American Planning Association, 29, 168-175.
Ghasemi. E., & Rafieian, M., (2020). Tahlili bar Taaroz-e Manafe dar Porojheha-ye Bozorg Meghyas-e Mosharekati dar Shahr ba ta’kid bar Model-e Sherakat-e Omumi-Khosusi-Mardomi [Analyzing Conflict of Interest in Large-Scale Participatory Projects with Emphasis on the Public Private People Partnership Model], Motaleat-e shahri, 9 (34), 90-104. [in Persian]
Henseler, J. (2012). PLS-MGA: A Non-Parametric Approach to Partial Least Squares-based Multi-Group Analysis. In W. A. Gaul, A. Geyer-Schulz, L. Schmidt-Thieme, & J. Kunze (Eds.), Challenges at the Interface of Data Analysis, Computer Science, and Optimization (pp. 495-501). Berlin: Springer.
Hirschman, Albert, (2019). Market Society (Competitive Interpretations) (Translated by Mohammad Reza Farhadipoor). Tehran: Pegah-e Roozgar-e Nov. [in Persian]
Jensen C. and Meckeling H. (1994). The Nature of Man. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 7(2), 4-19.
Kalantari, Kh. (2009). Modelsazi-ye Moadelat-e Sakhtari dar Tahghighat-e Eqtesadi-Ejtemaei [Structural Equation Modeling in Socio-Economic Research], Tehran: Farhang-e Saba. [in Persian]
Mansoorian, N. A. and Sheibani, A. (2016). Mafhoom-e manfa’t-e Omumi va Jaygah-e dar Ghanoongozari-ye Iran [The concept of public interest and its place in Iranian legislation]. Didgahha-ye Hoghoogh-e Ghazaie, 21, 117-142.
Moore, T. (1978). Why allow planners to do what they do? A justification from economic theory. Journal of the American Planning Association, 44, 387-98.
Motusali, M. (1994). Khosusisazi ya Tarkib-e Dowlat va Bazar dar Towse-ye Eghtesadi [Privatization, or the optimal combination of government and market in economic development]. Tehran: Moasese-ye Motalea’t va Pajhoheshha-ye Bazargani. [in Persian]
Pacione, M. (2013) Private Profit, Public Interest and Land Use Planning—A Conflict Interpretation of Residential Development Pressure in Glasgow’s Rural–Urban Fringe, Land Use Policy 32: 61– 77.
Pennington, M. (2000) Public Choice Theory and the Politics of Urban Containment: Voter-Centred Versus Special-Interest Explanations. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18, 145 – 162.
Polani, A.s (1989). The State in Transition. London: Lynne Renner Publisher.
Poulton, M.C. (1997) Externalities, Transaction Costs, Public Choice and the Appeal of Zoning. Town Planning Review, 68: 81–92.
Rezaei, M. J. and Movahedi B. (2017). Tabyein va Arzyabi-ye Nazari-ye Entekhab-e Omumi [Explaining and Evaluating General Selection Theory]. Eghtesad-e Tatbighi, 4 (1), 45-62. [in Persian]
Sharifzadegan, M.H. and Ghanouni, H. (2017). Tahlil va Mafhoomsazi-ye Nazarie Tasiraat-e Dowlat-e Ranti bar Ameliyat va Sakhtar-e Jame-ye Shahri-ye Iran [A Theoretical Analysis & Conceptualization of the Effects of Rentier States on Society's Agency and Structure and Urban Economy of Iran]. Eghtesad-e Shahri, 2 (1). [in Persian]
Sharifzadegan, M.H. and Nedayi Tousi, S. (2015). Raveshha-ye Pajhohesh-e keyfi dar Barnamerizi-ye Towseh [Qualitative Research Methods in Development Planning]. Tehran: Daneshgah-e Shahid Beheshti. [in Persian]
Tanzi, V. (2011). Government versus Markets: The Changing Economic Role of the State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tarhani, H., & Partovi P., (2018). Sazokarha-ye Tahaghogh-e Manfa’t-e Omumi dar Tarhha-ye Movafagh-e Towse-ye Shahri [Realisation Mechanisms for the Public Interest in Successful Urban Development Plans]. Soffeh, 28 (82), 91-112. [in Persian]
Vincent, Andrew, (2018). Government Theories (Translated by Hossein Bashirieh). Tehran: Nashr-e Ney.
Webster, C. J., (1998) Public Choice, Pigouvian and Coasian Planning Theory. Urban Studies, 35 (1), 53-75.
Wong, K. K. K. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Techniques Using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1): 1-32.
Kheyroddin, R., et al., (2017). Ta’dol-bakhshi Beyn-e Hoghogh-e Malekaneh va Manf’at-e Omumi dar Eghdamate Nowsazane-ye Shahri [Balancing between property right and public interests in urban regeneration measures]. Pajhoheshha-ye Memari-ye Eslami; 4 (4):22-39.